Outbreak - Animal and plant pests and diseases https://www.outbreak.gov.au/ en Advice for media during an outbreak https://www.outbreak.gov.au/prepare-respond/during-outbreak/media-arrangements <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Advice for media during an outbreak</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>bec.billingham</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2023-07-18T15:07:10+10:00" title="Tuesday, July 18, 2023 - 15:07" class="datetime">Tue, 2023-07-18 15:07</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div id="intro_content" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><strong>Exotic pests and diseases are a threat to Australia's agriculture, environment and economy</strong>.</p><p>Consistent and up-to-date public communication is crucial during an outbreak. It can help control and eradicate a pest or disease incursion. Past emergencies here and overseas have shown this. These include the equine influenza outbreak in Australia in 2007 and the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak in the United Kingdom in 2001.</p><div class="information-cards-bordered"><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h2>How we work with you</h2><p>We work with the media to help the community respond to biosecurity incidents.</p><p>A Public Information Manager may be able to help get images and footage for you to report. Depending on the risk, they can seek permission for one media crew to access an affected property. The images can be shared with other media outlets.</p></div></div></div><h2><span class="pagebreak">Access to affected properties</span></h2><p>Media and unauthorised people must not enter quarantined premises.</p><p>To do so will threaten containment, control and eradication efforts. It can place the community and affected industries at risk. Any unlawful entry into a property will be referred to local police.</p><p>Pests and diseases can be carried on your person or items. This includes:</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="infographics_1" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographics paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-infographic field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographic paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-text-above field--type-text-long 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</div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="infographics_2" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographics paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-infographic field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographic paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-text-above field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg style="height:60px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 220.89 169.17"><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m15.98,143.04v17.37c0,3.17,2.57,5.75,5.75,5.75h18.77c3.17,0,5.75-2.57,5.75-5.75v-17.37"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m60.77,96.2c.39,4.52-30.46-3.19-31.87-7.79-1.42-4.6-1.03-16.29,8.53-16.29s12.25,3.64,15.55,7.08c3.24,3.37,7.08,8.85,7.79,17Z"></path><line style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" x1="73.69" y1="89.48" x2="147.19" y2="89.48"></line><line style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" x1="138.94" y1="105.99" x2="81.95" y2="105.99"></line><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m24.67,48.6c0,4.26-1.4,5.94-8.61,5.94s-13.06-3.46-13.06-7.72,5.85-7.72,13.06-7.72,8.61,5.24,8.61,9.5Z"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m110.44,48.9h79.9l-17.39-36.17c-1.99-4.14-6.18-6.78-10.78-6.78,0,0-25.82-2.95-51.73-2.95s-51.73,2.95-51.73,2.95c-4.6,0-8.79,2.63-10.78,6.78l-17.39,36.17h79.9"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m190.34,48.9c4.61,11.51,9.74,21.45,15.68,29,3.49,4.44,5.03,10.11,4.1,15.68-2.45,14.77-2.8,29.18-2.85,42.23-.01,4-3.27,7.24-7.27,7.24H20.88c-4.01,0-7.26-3.24-7.27-7.25-.05-13.18-.39-27.41-2.85-42.22-.92-5.57.61-11.25,4.1-15.68,5.94-7.55,11.07-17.49,15.68-29"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m204.91,143.04v17.37c0,3.17-2.57,5.75-5.75,5.75h-18.77c-3.17,0-5.75-2.57-5.75-5.75v-17.37"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m160.11,96.2c-.39,4.52,30.46-3.19,31.87-7.79,1.42-4.6,1.03-16.29-8.53-16.29s-12.25,3.64-15.55,7.08c-3.24,3.37-7.08,8.85-7.79,17Z"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m182.91,141.11c-8.26-6.61-11.97-16.08-22.28-16.08H60.26c-10.31,0-14.03,9.48-22.28,16.08"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:6px;stroke:#002855;" d="m196.22,48.6c0,4.26,1.4,5.94,8.61,5.94s13.06-3.46,13.06-7.72-5.85-7.72-13.06-7.72-8.61,5.24-8.61,9.5Z"></path></svg></div></div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>vehicles</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographic paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-text-above field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg style="height:60px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 223.14 207.71"><path style="fill:#002855;" d="m144.53,113.31c-19.66,0-35.66,16-35.66,35.66s16,35.66,35.66,35.66,35.66-16,35.66-35.66-16-35.66-35.66-35.66Zm0,65.15c-16.26,0-29.49-13.23-29.49-29.49s13.23-29.49,29.49-29.49,29.49,13.23,29.49,29.49-13.23,29.49-29.49,29.49Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;" d="m123.63,150.98h6.18c0-8.12,6.61-14.73,14.73-14.73v-6.18c-11.53,0-20.9,9.38-20.9,20.9h0Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;" d="m195.12,23h-21.45v-12.67c0-5.7-4.64-10.33-10.33-10.33h-59.76c-5.7,0-10.33,4.63-10.33,10.33v12.67h-45.51c-4.58-2.5-9.84-3.92-15.42-3.92C14.5,19.08,0,33.58,0,51.4v114.32c0,17.82,14.5,32.32,32.32,32.32,8.28,0,15.81-3.16,21.54-8.29h49.37c10.36,11.02,25.02,17.96,41.3,17.96,11.7,0,22.59-3.57,31.63-9.66h18.95c15.46,0,28.03-12.58,28.03-28.03V51.04c0-15.46-12.58-28.03-28.03-28.03h0Zm-95.7-12.67c0-2.29,1.87-4.16,4.16-4.16h59.76c2.29,0,4.16,1.87,4.16,4.16v12.67h-68.08v-12.67Zm-40.95,155.39c0,14.42-11.73,26.15-26.15,26.15h0c-14.42,0-26.15-11.73-26.15-26.15V51.4c0-14.42,11.73-26.15,26.15-26.15s26.15,11.73,26.15,26.15c0,0,0,114.32,0,114.32Zm86.06,35.81c-27.88,0-50.56-22.68-50.56-50.55s22.68-50.56,50.56-50.56,50.56,22.68,50.56,50.56-22.68,50.55-50.56,50.55Zm72.45-31.52c0,12.05-9.81,21.86-21.86,21.86h-11.37c10.77-10.33,17.51-24.83,17.51-40.89,0-31.28-25.45-56.73-56.73-56.73s-56.73,25.45-56.73,56.73c0,12.13,3.86,23.36,10.38,32.6h-38.94c3.41-5.12,5.4-11.26,5.4-17.85V51.4c0-8.61-3.41-16.43-8.92-22.23h139.39c12.05,0,21.86,9.81,21.86,21.86v118.98h0Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;" d="m32.32,34.26c-7.48,0-13.57,6.09-13.57,13.57s6.09,13.57,13.57,13.57,13.57-6.09,13.57-13.57-6.09-13.57-13.57-13.57Zm0,20.97c-4.08,0-7.4-3.32-7.4-7.4s3.32-7.4,7.4-7.4,7.4,3.32,7.4,7.4-3.32,7.4-7.4,7.4Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;" d="m154.72,68.11h35.92v-23.37h-35.92v23.37Zm6.18-17.19h23.57v11.01h-23.57v-11.01Z"></path></svg></div></div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>cameras and tripods</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographic paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-text-above field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg style="height:60px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 138.28 220.08"><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:2px;stroke:#fff;" d="m132.74,96.41c-2.51,0-4.54,2.03-4.54,4.54v22.72c0,32.57-26.5,59.06-59.06,59.06s-59.06-26.5-59.06-59.06v-22.72c0-2.51-2.03-4.54-4.54-4.54s-4.54,2.03-4.54,4.54v22.72c0,36.06,28.17,65.59,63.65,67.92,0,.08-.05.15-.05.23v22.72c0,2.51,2.03,4.54,4.54,4.54s4.54-2.03,4.54-4.54v-22.72c0-.08-.04-.15-.05-.23,35.48-2.33,63.65-31.86,63.65-67.92v-22.72c0-2.51-2.03-4.54-4.54-4.54Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:2px;stroke:#fff;" d="m69.14,1c-25.05,0-45.43,20.38-45.43,45.43v77.23c0,25.05,20.38,45.43,45.43,45.43s45.43-20.38,45.43-45.43V46.43c0-25.05-20.38-45.43-45.43-45.43Zm0,9.09c11.45,0,21.66,5.33,28.33,13.63h-10.15c-2.51,0-4.54,2.03-4.54,4.54s2.03,4.54,4.54,4.54h15.5c1.16,2.87,1.96,5.91,2.36,9.09h-17.86c-2.51,0-4.54,2.03-4.54,4.54s2.03,4.54,4.54,4.54h18.17v9.09h-18.17c-2.51,0-4.54,2.03-4.54,4.54s2.03,4.54,4.54,4.54h18.17v13.63H32.79v-13.63h18.17c2.51,0,4.54-2.03,4.54-4.54s-2.03-4.54-4.54-4.54h-18.17v-9.09h18.17c2.51,0,4.54-2.03,4.54-4.54s-2.03-4.54-4.54-4.54h-17.86c.4-3.17,1.2-6.22,2.36-9.09h15.5c2.51,0,4.54-2.03,4.54-4.54s-2.03-4.54-4.54-4.54h-10.15c6.67-8.3,16.88-13.63,28.33-13.63Zm36.35,113.58c0,20.04-16.31,36.35-36.35,36.35s-36.35-16.3-36.35-36.35v-31.8h72.69v31.8h0Z"></path></svg></div></div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>microphones</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--infographic paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-text-above field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg style="height:60px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 140.66 221.02"><path style="fill:#002855;" d="m80.35,33.79h-20.03c-3.69.02-7.39.38-10.99,1.15-10.24,2.17-19.42,7.32-26.59,14.48-9.65,9.64-15.63,22.95-15.63,37.58v117.1c0,5.37,4.42,9.81,9.81,9.81h106.85c5.39,0,9.81-4.42,9.81-9.81v-117.1c0-14.63-5.99-27.94-15.63-37.58-7.12-7.12-16.23-12.25-26.4-14.44-3.68-.78-7.42-1.17-11.18-1.19h-.02Zm26.77,123.53v12.8c0,1.96-1.59,3.55-3.55,3.55s-3.55-1.59-3.55-3.55v-12.8H18.97v29.79c0,8.19,6.75,14.95,14.95,14.95h72.83c8.16,0,14.95-6.79,14.95-14.95v-29.79h-14.58Zm-17.92-73.54l-16.35,16.35c-1.39,1.39-3.63,1.39-5.02,0-5.45-5.45-10.9-10.9-16.35-16.35-1.39-1.39-1.39-3.63,0-5.02,5.45-5.45,10.9-10.9,16.35-16.35,1.39-1.39,3.63-1.39,5.02,0l16.35,16.35c1.39,1.39,1.39,3.63,0,5.02h0Zm-18.86,8.82l11.33-11.33c-3.78-3.78-7.55-7.56-11.33-11.33-3.78,3.78-7.56,7.56-11.33,11.33l11.33,11.33h0Zm-51.37,57.61h102.73v-8.64c0-4.06-1.66-7.87-4.54-10.7-2.7-2.63-6.37-4.25-10.41-4.25H33.92c-4.11,0-7.85,1.68-10.56,4.39-2.71,2.71-4.39,6.45-4.39,10.56v8.64h0Zm14.95-30.69h72.83c6.01,0,11.48,2.44,15.46,6.36,4.17,4.17,6.59,9.77,6.59,15.69v45.52c0,12.05-10,22.05-22.05,22.05H33.92c-12.09,0-22.05-9.97-22.05-22.05v-45.52c0-6.07,2.48-11.58,6.47-15.58,4-4,9.51-6.48,15.58-6.48h0ZM77.43,26.69v-2.04c0-.96-.19-1.88-.53-2.7-.72-1.72-2.15-3.15-3.87-3.87-1.71-.71-3.69-.71-5.4,0-1.72.72-3.15,2.14-3.87,3.87-.34.82-.53,1.74-.53,2.7v2.04s14.2,0,14.2,0Zm-21.3.15v-2.18c0-1.9.39-3.74,1.09-5.42,1.44-3.47,4.23-6.25,7.69-7.69,3.46-1.44,7.38-1.44,10.84,0,3.47,1.44,6.25,4.23,7.7,7.69.7,1.68,1.09,3.52,1.09,5.42v2.18c1.25.09,2.48.21,3.71.37v-2.21c0-2.42-.48-4.73-1.35-6.83-1.81-4.36-5.37-7.92-9.73-9.73-4.33-1.8-9.32-1.8-13.65,0-4.37,1.81-7.91,5.36-9.73,9.73-.87,2.09-1.35,4.4-1.35,6.83v2.21c1.22-.16,2.46-.29,3.71-.37h-.02Zm84.53,177.27c0,9.27-7.63,16.91-16.91,16.91H16.91c-9.27,0-16.91-7.64-16.91-16.91v-117.1c0-16.59,6.79-31.67,17.71-42.6,7.52-7.52,17.01-13.08,27.61-15.82v-3.59c0-3.36.68-6.59,1.91-9.55,2.54-6.1,7.45-11.02,13.55-13.55,6.09-2.53,13-2.53,19.09,0,6.1,2.53,11.02,7.45,13.55,13.55,1.23,2.95,1.91,6.18,1.91,9.55v3.59c10.6,2.73,20.09,8.29,27.61,15.82,10.93,10.93,17.72,26.01,17.72,42.6v117.1h0Z"></path></svg></div></div> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>bags</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="complex_info" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Strict biosecurity measures are in place when you enter and leave infected premises. This includes cleaning and disinfecting people and items. Be aware that this process could damage camera and audio equipment.</p><h2>Messages for the public</h2><p>At the start of a biosecurity incident, there are urgent messages the public needs to know.</p><div class="paragraph--type--infographics-complex"><div class="field--name-field-infographic-complex"><div class="field__item"><div class="paragraph--type--infographic-complex"><div class="field--name-field-title"><div><svg style="height:40px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 126.66 126.66"><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:2px;stroke:#002855;" d="m1,63.33c0,8.41,1.65,16.58,4.9,24.26,3.14,7.43,7.63,14.09,13.36,19.81,5.72,5.72,12.39,10.22,19.81,13.36,7.69,3.25,15.85,4.9,24.26,4.9s16.58-1.65,24.26-4.9c7.43-3.14,14.09-7.63,19.81-13.36s10.22-12.39,13.36-19.81c3.25-7.69,4.9-15.85,4.9-24.26s-1.65-16.58-4.9-24.26c-3.14-7.43-7.63-14.09-13.36-19.81s-12.39-10.22-19.81-13.36c-7.69-3.25-15.85-4.9-24.26-4.9s-16.58,1.65-24.26,4.9c-7.43,3.14-14.09,7.63-19.81,13.36-5.72,5.72-10.22,12.39-13.36,19.81-3.25,7.69-4.9,15.85-4.9,24.26Zm21.83,40.51c-.18-.18-.36-.37-.55-.55L107.47,26.81c3.57,4.29,6.46,9.06,8.65,14.23,2.99,7.06,4.5,14.56,4.5,22.3s-1.51,15.24-4.5,22.3c-2.88,6.82-7.01,12.95-12.28,18.21s-11.39,9.39-18.21,12.28c-7.06,2.99-14.56,4.5-22.3,4.5s-15.24-1.51-22.3-4.5c-6.82-2.88-12.95-7.01-18.21-12.28h0ZM6.05,63.33c0-7.73,1.51-15.24,4.5-22.3,2.88-6.82,7.01-12.95,12.28-18.21s11.39-9.39,18.21-12.28c7.06-2.99,14.56-4.5,22.3-4.5s15.24,1.51,22.3,4.5c6.82,2.88,12.95,7.01,18.21,12.28.08.08.16.16.24.24L18.92,99.52c-3.44-4.21-6.24-8.86-8.37-13.89-2.99-7.06-4.5-14.56-4.5-22.3h0Z"></path></svg></div><h3 data-toc="ignore">Keep away</h3></div><div class="field--name-field-body"><p>Do not enter infected or at-risk properties.</p></div></div></div><div class="field__item"><div class="paragraph--type--infographic-complex"><div class="field--name-field-title"><div><svg style="height:40px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 215.24 211.46"><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m11.36,183c13.71,1.1,26.13,3.02,35.53,7.92.4.22.8.43,1.2.65.21.12.43.23.64.35h0c4.04,2.17,8.3,4.33,12.74,6.48,12.6,6.09,22.82,9.2,35.2,9.55,15.21.43,41.72-12.36,62.07-23.54,39.13-21.51,60.98-35.25,50.29-44-10.09-8.26-40.28,10.23-66.13,23.34"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m59.39,164.64c18.36,1.46,30.19,6.72,46.26,12.22,16.44,5.62,26.94,9.21,29.68.12,2.88-9.56-16.78-24.15-37.44-32.48-14.89-6-25.4-17.83-39.27-19.65-11.36-1.49-21.72,1.23-29.94,3.94-9.73,3.2-17.76,5.22-25.18,6.43"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m184.83,132.7c-1.49-1.63-4.38-2.6-8.55-2.59-11.21,0-28.65,11.89-44.35,21.87"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m159.05,125.62c-1.31-.29-2.9-.38-4.76-.22-8.95.78-18.94,10.05-32.34,19.87"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m134.89,124.57c-1.23-.24-2.75-.24-4.52.02-6.69,1-9.41,6.17-19.47,14.35"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m129.32,77.49c-1.33,7.47-5.93,13.81-12.27,17.49"></path><line style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" x1="129.43" y1="65.06" x2="129.31" y2="62.48"></line><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:7px;stroke:#002855;" d="m105.46,3.5s37.64,30.8,37.64,70.87c0,20.79-16.85,37.64-37.64,37.64s-37.64-16.85-37.64-37.64C67.82,34.3,105.46,3.5,105.46,3.5Z"></path></svg></div><h3 data-toc="ignore">Keep clean</h3></div><div class="field--name-field-body"><p>Biosecurity and hygiene measures are always critical. Check <a href="https://www.farmbiosecurity.com.au/">Farmbiosecurity.com.au</a> for advice.</p></div></div></div></div></div><div class="paragraph--type--infographics-complex"><div class="field--name-field-infographic-complex"><div class="field__item"><div class="paragraph--type--infographic-complex"><div class="field--name-field-title"><div><svg style="height:40px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 200.89 119.91"><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:.25px;stroke:#002855;" d="m44.68,35.47c-18.96,0-34.39,16.46-34.39,36.7s15.43,36.7,34.39,36.7,34.39-16.46,34.39-36.7-15.43-36.7-34.39-36.7Zm0,68.7c-16.37,0-29.68-14.35-29.68-32s13.32-32,29.68-32,29.68,14.35,29.68,32-13.32,32-29.68,32Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:.25px;stroke:#002855;" d="m44.68,46.39c-13.35,0-24.21,11.57-24.21,25.79,0,1.3,1.05,2.35,2.35,2.35s2.35-1.05,2.35-2.35c0-11.63,8.75-21.09,19.51-21.09,1.3,0,2.35-1.05,2.35-2.35s-1.05-2.35-2.35-2.35h0Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:.25px;stroke:#002855;" d="m156.21,35.47c-18.96,0-34.39,16.46-34.39,36.7s15.43,36.7,34.39,36.7,34.39-16.46,34.39-36.7-15.43-36.7-34.39-36.7Zm0,68.7c-16.37,0-29.68-14.35-29.68-32s13.32-32,29.68-32,29.68,14.35,29.68,32-13.32,32-29.68,32Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:.25px;stroke:#002855;" d="m156.21,46.39c-13.35,0-24.21,11.57-24.21,25.79,0,1.3,1.05,2.35,2.35,2.35s2.35-1.05,2.35-2.35c0-11.63,8.75-21.09,19.51-21.09,1.3,0,2.35-1.05,2.35-2.35s-1.05-2.35-2.35-2.35h0Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:.25px;stroke:#002855;" d="m100.39,36.42c-4.9,0-8.88,4.19-8.88,9.36s3.99,9.36,8.88,9.36,8.88-4.19,8.88-9.36-3.99-9.36-8.88-9.36Zm0,14.01c-2.3,0-4.18-2.09-4.18-4.65s1.88-4.65,4.18-4.65,4.18,2.09,4.18,4.65-1.88,4.65-4.18,4.65Z"></path><path style="fill:#002855;stroke-miterlimit:10;stroke-width:.25px;stroke:#002855;" d="m187.28,38.1l-29.35-31.37s-.05-.04-.07-.06-.04-.05-.06-.07c-4.29-3.93-10.75-6.47-16.46-6.47-12.52,0-22.82,10.35-23.76,23.44-2.72-1.14-5.28-2.81-7.53-4.94-5.47-5.19-13.75-5.19-19.2,0-2.25,2.14-4.8,3.8-7.53,4.94C82.38,10.47,72.09.12,59.56.12c-5.71,0-12.17,2.54-16.46,6.47-.02.02-.04.05-.06.07-.02.02-.05.04-.07.06l-29.35,31.37C4.53,47.55.12,59.95.12,72.18c0,26.26,19.99,47.61,44.56,47.61s43.35-20.09,44.51-45.26h22.5c1.15,25.17,20.67,45.26,44.51,45.26s44.56-21.36,44.56-47.61c0-12.9-4.85-25.08-13.49-34.08h0Zm-108.6-13.14c-1.39.27-2.8.4-4.22.4h-.11c-1.3,0-2.35,1.05-2.35,2.35s1.05,2.35,2.35,2.35h.11c7.2,0,14.17-2.85,19.62-8.04,3.65-3.47,9.08-3.46,12.73,0,5.45,5.19,12.42,8.04,19.62,8.04,1.3,0,2.35-1.05,2.35-2.35s-1.05-2.35-2.35-2.35c-1.42,0-2.83-.14-4.22-.4.27-11.15,8.74-20.13,19.12-20.13,4.58,0,9.77,2.04,13.24,5.19l16,17.1c-4.51-1.65-9.33-2.55-14.36-2.55-11.84,0-22.6,4.96-30.59,13.04-5.7-.21-11.2-2.57-15.57-6.72-5.47-5.19-13.75-5.19-19.2,0-4.37,4.15-9.87,6.51-15.57,6.72-7.98-8.07-18.75-13.04-30.59-13.04-5.03,0-9.85.91-14.36,2.55l16-17.1c3.47-3.15,8.66-5.19,13.24-5.19,10.38,0,18.84,8.98,19.12,20.13,0,0,0,0,0,0Zm33.02,44.86h-22.5c-.48-10.56-4.2-20.23-10.12-27.9,5.52-.95,10.74-3.57,15.02-7.63,3.65-3.46,9.08-3.46,12.73,0,4.28,4.06,9.49,6.69,15.01,7.63-5.92,7.66-9.64,17.33-10.12,27.9h0Zm-67.01,45.26c-21.98,0-39.86-19.25-39.86-42.91S22.36,29.26,44.69,29.26s39.86,19.25,39.86,42.91-17.88,42.91-39.86,42.91Zm111.52,0c-21.98,0-39.86-19.25-39.86-42.91s17.88-42.91,39.86-42.91,39.86,19.59,39.86,42.91-17.88,42.91-39.86,42.91h0Z"></path></svg></div><h3 data-toc="ignore">Keep watch</h3></div><div class="field--name-field-body"><p>If you see signs of pest or disease, report it. Call the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800 675 888</strong> or the <strong>Exotic Plant Pest Hotline on 1800 084 881</strong>.</p></div></div></div><div class="field__item"><div class="paragraph--type--infographic-complex"><div class="field--name-field-title"><div><svg style="height:40px;" id="Layer_1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewBox="0 0 197.88 197.88"><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:9px;stroke:#002855;" d="m25.15,157.86C10.94,140.09,3,117.08,4.74,92.18,7.88,47.09,48.87,6.92,94.01,4.63c56-2.85,102.01,43.11,99.25,99.08-2.22,45.06-42.25,86.12-87.24,89.41-19.66,1.44-38.15-3.18-53.83-12.13-.65-.37-1.44-.38-2.1-.03-16.37,8.68-32.03,11.33-39.01,12.12-1.41.16-2.33-1.44-1.47-2.56,4.04-5.27,12.26-17.2,15.88-31.14.14-.52,0-1.08-.33-1.51h-.01Z"></path><circle style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:9px;stroke:#002855;" cx="97.97" cy="58.57" r="15.74"></circle><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:9px;stroke:#002855;" d="m86.25,103.94v34.1h-.58c-3.99,0-7.22,3.23-7.22,7.22v.07c0,3.97,3.21,7.2,7.18,7.22l26.53.12c4,.02,7.25-3.22,7.25-7.22h0c0-3.99-3.23-7.23-7.22-7.23h-.58v-43.77c0-2.66-2.15-4.82-4.81-4.84l-21.11-.12c-4-.02-7.26,3.22-7.26,7.22h0c0,3.99,3.23,7.22,7.22,7.22h.6Z"></path></svg></div><h3 data-toc="ignore">Keep informed</h3></div><div class="field--name-field-body"><p>Know what's happening in your area. Check <a href="https://www.outbreak.gov.au/">Outbreak.gov.au</a> for the latest updates.</p></div></div></div></div></div><h2><span class="pagebreak">Do not assume the source</span></h2><p>Do not assume that the first property owner to report a pest or disease is the original source of the outbreak. Use caution when reporting on an incident. Do not implicate a person or business. This can deter people from reporting further cases.</p><p>The person who reports a pest or disease enables the authorities to respond quickly. Their actions may save many animals’ lives and peoples’ livelihoods.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>Biosecurity incident response arrangements</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>When an exotic pest or disease is found, the state or territory government will:</p><ul><li>quarantine the affected premises</li><li>apply movement restrictions in the form of Restricted and Control Areas</li><li>undertake secure laboratory tests to confirm the pest or disease</li><li>determine and limit the spread of the pest or disease</li><li>carry out destruction, disposal and decontamination procedures.</li></ul><h3>Who is involved</h3><p>Where a pest or disease is contained within a jurisdiction, it’s known as the ‘combat’ state or territory. The combat state or territory leads the incident response. Response activities are coordinated through a State Coordination Centre (SCC). A Local Control Centre (LCC) may be established in an affected region.</p><p>The Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry will lead a national response. This happens when a pest or disease is likely to occur in more than one jurisdiction or where there are significant international trade issues arise. These response activities are coordinated through the National Coordination Centre (NCC) in Canberra.</p><p>Nationally agreed biosecurity incident plans and procedures are in place. This ensures a consistent response across Australia. These plans and procedures are used for plant, animal and environmental biosecurity incidents. Most biosecurity incidents that occur in Australia affect plants.</p><p><a href="/our-role/response-outbreak" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="c60e9894-8e85-4643-874a-2bba45f587da" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="How we coordinate a response to an outbreak">See how we coordinate a response</a>.</p><h2><span class="pagebreak">Quarantine zones and restrictions</span></h2><p>Quarantine zones and movement restrictions help to contain a pest or disease. The zones are enforceable by law.</p><p>Individual properties, localities and regions will be identified as particular areas or zones. These are temporary classifications to be used as needed. </p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="information_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div class="information-cards-bordered col-2"><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h3>Infected Premises (IP)</h3><p>A property where a pest or disease has been identified and confirmed. This property is quarantined, and access is restricted to authorised biosecurity personnel. They have specific roles to control the incident. They will undertake the necessary biosecurity procedures before entering and leaving the property.</p></div></div><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h3>Suspect Premises (SP)</h3><p>A property that contains susceptible plant(s) or animal(s) not known to have been exposed. They show clinical signs and must be investigated.</p></div></div><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h3>Trace Premises (TP)</h3><p>A property that contains a susceptible plant(s) or animal(s) that tracing indicates may have been exposed. Or the premises contains contaminated plant or animal products or waste. It must be investigated.</p></div></div><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h3>Restricted Area (RA)</h3><p>A larger area around an IP. It typically includes all properties within a 10 km radius and is secured by roadblocks or check points. Do not enter the RA unless you have a legitimate need. Media personnel do not need approval from authorities to enter. You will be asked to stop at a check point to get updates on movement restrictions.</p></div></div><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h3><span class="pagebreak">Control Area (CA)</span></h3><p>Normally a large area in the first few days of an outbreak. Movement restrictions within the CA apply to animals, but not people. Vehicles may be stopped at check points to check for anything that might spread the pest or disease.</p></div></div><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h3>Restricted airspace (RA)&nbsp;</h3><p>You must not use helicopters or drones to film infected properties. Low flying aircraft will scare and scatter livestock. This would hamper disease containment. Some diseases (including plant diseases) are airborne and can be spread easily by the wind or air disturbance.</p></div></div></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>Consideration during times of loss</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>During an outbreak, animals or crops may be destroyed for disease control purposes. Livelihoods may be at risk and people may experience considerable distress.</p><p>We ask that the media respect the wishes of the affected people who may want privacy.&nbsp;</p><div class="resource-cards"><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><div><h3>Share support</h3><p>An outbreak can be a stressful time for many people. These services may be useful to share:</p><ul><li><a href="http://www.lifeline.org.au/">Lifeline Australia</a>&nbsp;<strong>13&nbsp;11&nbsp;14</strong></li><li><a href="http://www.beyondblue.org.au/">beyondblue</a>&nbsp;<strong>1300&nbsp;22&nbsp;46&nbsp;36</strong></li><li><a href="http://www.mensline.org.au/">Mensline Australia</a>&nbsp;<strong>1300&nbsp;78&nbsp;99&nbsp;78</strong></li><li><a href="http://www.kidshelp.com.au/">Kids Help Line</a>&nbsp;<strong>1800&nbsp;55&nbsp;18&nbsp;00</strong></li><li><a href="https://www.suicidecallbackservice.org.au/">Suicide Callback Service</a>&nbsp;<strong>1300&nbsp;659&nbsp;467</strong></li></ul><p>Find the right mental health resource for you via <a href="https://headtohealth.gov.au/">headtohealth.gov.au</a>.</p></div></div></div></div><h2>Who to contact</h2><p>Contact the state or territory government authority leading the response. They will have a media team that can help you with your media inquiries.</p><p><a href="https://www.outbreak.gov.au/">Outbreak.gov.au</a> will have the latest updates. This includes details of the lead authority in the combat state or territory.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="publication-footer-print clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-footer field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p><span class="pagebreak">© Commonwealth of Australia, 2023</span></p><p><img class="publication-creative-commons-logo" src="/themes/custom/custom/outbreak/images/cc-logo.svg" alt="Creative commons logo" /> This publication is licensed by Commonwealth of Australia under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international licence.</p><p>We acknowledge the Traditional Owners of country throughout Australia and recognise their continuing connection to land, waters and culture. We pay our respects to their Elders past, present and emerging.</p><p class="publication-footer-url">outbreak.gov.au</p></div> </div> </div> Tue, 18 Jul 2023 05:07:10 +0000 bec.billingham 116 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au Current responses to outbreaks https://www.outbreak.gov.au/current-outbreaks <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Current responses to outbreaks</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>isaac.townsend</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2023-06-15T16:53:18+10:00" title="Thursday, June 15, 2023 - 16:53" class="datetime">Thu, 2023-06-15 16:53</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>Find an outbreak</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 15 Jun 2023 06:53:18 +0000 isaac.townsend 79 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au Our role in a pest or disease outbreak https://www.outbreak.gov.au/our-role <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Our role in a pest or disease outbreak</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>isaac.townsend</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2023-06-15T10:27:39+10:00" title="Thursday, June 15, 2023 - 10:27" class="datetime">Thu, 2023-06-15 10:27</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div id="bau_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>What we do</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="bau-cards card-container paragraph paragraph--type--cards paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-cards field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="Respond" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3081" data-name="Rectangle 3081" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><path id="Path_5961" data-name="Path 5961" d="M295.2,234.005c-4.123,0-7.2-3.455-7.2-7.716v-2.573c0-4.261,3.079-7.716,7.2-7.716s7.2,3.455,7.2,7.716v2.573C302.4,230.551,299.325,234.005,295.2,234.005Z" transform="translate(-225.153 -170.296)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5962" data-name="Path 5962" d="M264,303.2c0-4.935,8.119-7.2,12.6-7.2s12.6,2.225,12.6,7.16V305" transform="translate(-206.554 -229.692)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5963" data-name="Path 5963" d="M175.2,274.005c-4.123,0-7.2-3.455-7.2-7.716v-2.573c0-4.261,3.079-7.716,7.2-7.716s7.2,3.455,7.2,7.716v2.573C182.4,270.551,179.325,274.005,175.2,274.005Z" transform="translate(-132.932 -200.621)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5964" data-name="Path 5964" d="M144,345v-1.8c0-4.935,8.119-7.2,12.6-7.2s12.6,2.225,12.6,7.16V345" transform="translate(-114.333 -262.616)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5965" data-name="Path 5965" d="M63.2,202.005c-4.123,0-7.2-3.455-7.2-7.716v-2.573c0-4.261,3.079-7.716,7.2-7.716s7.2,3.455,7.2,7.716v2.573C70.4,198.551,67.325,202.005,63.2,202.005Z" transform="translate(-47.711 -141.068)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5966" data-name="Path 5966" d="M32,273v-1.8c0-4.935,8.119-7.2,12.6-7.2s12.6,2.225,12.6,7.16V273" transform="translate(-29.112 -200.079)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5974" data-name="Path 5974" d="M47.134,46.2l-1.288-.22a22.77,22.77,0,0,1-9.821-4.223,20.021,20.021,0,1,1,6.17-6.429l.133.548a28.367,28.367,0,0,0,3.93,9Z" transform="translate(13.283 0.505)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></path><circle id="Ellipse_319" data-name="Ellipse 319" cx="2.408" cy="2.408" r="2.408" transform="translate(26.163 23.697)" fill="#002855"></circle><circle id="Ellipse_320" data-name="Ellipse 320" cx="2.408" cy="2.408" r="2.408" transform="translate(35.942 23.697)" fill="#002855"></circle><circle id="Ellipse_321" data-name="Ellipse 321" cx="2.408" cy="2.408" r="2.408" transform="translate(45.721 23.697)" fill="#002855"></circle></svg></div><h3><a href="/our-role/response-outbreak" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="c60e9894-8e85-4643-874a-2bba45f587da" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="How we coordinate a response to an outbreak">How we coordinate a response</a></h3><p>Who is involved in a response to an exotic pest or disease outbreak and how we work together.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="About" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3082" data-name="Rectangle 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transform="translate(-232 -168.767)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="3"></path><line id="Line_634" data-name="Line 634" y2="3.667" transform="translate(3.192)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="3"></line></g></g><path id="Path_5980" data-name="Path 5980" d="M70.7,67.213V77.662H8V8H70.7V25.415" transform="translate(-8 -8)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></path><line id="Line_638" data-name="Line 638" x2="62.957" transform="translate(0 10.391)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></line><g id="Group_2123" data-name="Group 2123" transform="translate(5.298 3.832)"><circle id="Ellipse_322" data-name="Ellipse 322" cx="1.292" cy="1.292" r="1.292" fill="#002855"></circle><circle id="Ellipse_323" data-name="Ellipse 323" cx="1.292" cy="1.292" r="1.292" transform="translate(5.17)" fill="#002855"></circle><circle id="Ellipse_324" data-name="Ellipse 324" cx="1.292" cy="1.292" r="1.292" transform="translate(10.34)" fill="#002855"></circle></g></g></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/our-role/about-website" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="a3b39dc6-981c-4ca4-9fa9-c8e8a4498dff" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="About this website">About this website</a></h3><p>What you can find on this website and how we manage information.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="Contacts" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3083" data-name="Rectangle 3083" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><g id="Group_2161" 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stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5971" data-name="Path 5971" d="M41.384,72.48H13.341c-1.991,0-3.606-2-3.606-4.464V4.964C9.735,2.5,11.351.5,13.341.5H41.384c1.993,0,3.609,2,3.609,4.464V68.015C44.993,70.481,43.377,72.48,41.384,72.48Z" transform="translate(9.902 -0.5)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><line id="Line_624" data-name="Line 624" x2="35.258" transform="translate(19.636 10.157)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></line><line id="Line_625" data-name="Line 625" x2="35.258" transform="translate(19.636 60.267)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></line><line id="Line_626" data-name="Line 626" x2="6.303" transform="translate(34.113 4.909)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="4"></line><ellipse id="Ellipse_318" data-name="Ellipse 318" cx="0.998" cy="1.092" rx="0.998" ry="1.092" transform="translate(36.268 64.9)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="4"></ellipse></g></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/our-role/response-outbreak/contacts" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="2102f77b-ebc4-4277-a7ae-caa8d3be5225" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Biosecurity contacts in Australia">Biosecurity contacts</a></h3><p>See who is responsible for plant and animal health in Australia. Contacts for government agencies and peak industry bodies.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="see_more_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>See more</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="more-cards card-container paragraph paragraph--type--cards paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-cards field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/prevent-prepare" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="8e86ef99-911c-4914-9cba-68c7fad299ca" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Prevent and prepare for outbreaks">Prevent and prepare</a></h3><p>What you can do to prevent pest and disease outbreaks. How to prepare for an outbreak that might affect you.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/during-outbreak" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="0abb06c5-dd7c-4832-88b2-f0410cda2389" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="What to do during an outbreak">During an outbreak</a></h3><p>Actions you can take if you suspect a pest or disease outbreak. How to report your concerns and what to do next.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/emerging-risks" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="4fce9d62-0941-4d3f-88b3-fcd0fa7ca081" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Emerging risks to Australia">Risks to Australia</a></h3><p>Advice on pest and disease threats that have been detected outside Australia.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/report" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="736c43c9-a39e-4d25-a240-bfda2ca9735b" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Report a concern">Report a concern</a></h3><p>Report anything unusual, even if you're not sure.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:27:39 +0000 isaac.townsend 84 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au Emerging risks to Australia https://www.outbreak.gov.au/emerging-risks <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Emerging risks to Australia</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>isaac.townsend</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2023-06-15T10:27:15+10:00" title="Thursday, June 15, 2023 - 10:27" class="datetime">Thu, 2023-06-15 10:27</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div id="body_content" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h2>Reduce the risk of outbreaks</h2><p><strong>These pests and diseases are not in Australia</strong>.</p><p>We have identified these as potential threats, due to detections in the region around Australia. This increases the risk of an outbreak here. Learn what you can do to help manage the risk of an outbreak.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="bau_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="bau-cards card-container paragraph paragraph--type--cards paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-cards field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted 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It has no vaccine and kills about 80% of the pigs it infects.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><svg style="width:70px;" id="Layer_1" data-name="Layer 1" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" viewbox="0 0 113.03 143.56"><line style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" x1="62.32" y1="138.25" x2="49.35" y2="141.5"></line><line style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" x1="62.32" y1="125.28" x2="62.32" y2="138.25"></line><line style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" x1="62.32" y1="138.25" x2="68.81" y2="141.5"></line><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" d="M46.52,65.97c4.05-4.93,10.29-5.54,12.57-5.54h38.91c0,21.49-12.97,38.91-38.91,38.91"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" d="M16.93,45.84l-14.86-.77,9.8-11.64c1.16-7.47,7.6-13.19,15.39-13.19,4.98,0,9.42,2.34,12.27,5.97h-.02c3.74,4.89,19.57,34.22,19.57,34.22"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" d="M47.61,21.16c1.17-2.18,1.74-4.42,1.74-6.15,0-7.15-6.03-12.94-13.47-12.94-4.92,0-9.18,2.56-11.53,6.35-1.08-.36-2.22-.6-3.43-.6-5.36,0-9.77,3.86-10.4,8.85-.05.4-.08.81-.08,1.22"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" d="M82.3,51.15c5.78-7.33,17.38-13.42,28.66-13.42v29.18c0,19.25-15.55,38.72-32.43,45.4,0,6.49-7.26,12.97-16.21,12.97s-16.21-6.49-16.21-12.97c-13.27-3.04-29.18-11.48-29.31-33.29"></path><path style="fill:none;stroke-linecap:round;stroke-linejoin:round;stroke-width:4.13px;stroke:#0e2e4f;" d="M25.03,59.71c0,4.88-3.63,8.83-8.11,8.83s-8.11-3.95-8.11-8.83c0-8.2,8.11-13.87,8.11-13.87,0,0,8.11,5.67,8.11,13.87Z"></path></svg><h3><a href="/emerging-risks/high-pathogenicity-avian-influenza" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="bc3892aa-5a42-42ec-8e53-755c63a3e6d6" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="High pathogenicity avian influenza">Avian influenza (HPAI)</a></h3><p>HPAI can affect a variety of animals. 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d="M35.656,81.615a8.925,8.925,0,0,0,1.476-.172.526.526,0,0,0,.311-.859c-1.155-1.357-1.074-2.7-.972-4.4q.015-.238.028-.482a21.072,21.072,0,0,1,1.355-4.607l.061-.162c.081-.217.219-.545.379-.926.86-2.05,1.621-3.972,1.49-4.956a.526.526,0,1,0-1.042.138c.1.784-.923,3.234-1.417,4.411-.164.39-.305.728-.393.962l-.061.162a21.146,21.146,0,0,0-1.421,4.921c-.009.161-.018.32-.028.476a7.087,7.087,0,0,0,.691,4.414,1.867,1.867,0,0,1-1.026-.076.525.525,0,1,0-.55.9,2.119,2.119,0,0,0,1.12.261" transform="translate(-6.804 -47.621)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6296" data-name="Path 6296" d="M104.025,94.77a4.412,4.412,0,0,0,3.983-2.479.526.526,0,0,0-.943-.464,3.387,3.387,0,0,1-5.3,1.025.526.526,0,0,0-.7.782,4.429,4.429,0,0,0,2.965,1.136" transform="translate(-92.568 -67.481)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6297" data-name="Path 6297" d="M38.052,23.573a.525.525,0,0,0,.064-1.047,7.533,7.533,0,0,1-2.272-.734,6.291,6.291,0,0,1,3.164.062.526.526,0,0,0,.449-.95c-1.187-.56-2.958-.28-4.251-.076-.34.054-.634.1-.871.125a.525.525,0,0,0-.293.918,8.459,8.459,0,0,0,3.945,1.7.5.5,0,0,0,.065,0" transform="translate(-6.652 -15.168)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6298" data-name="Path 6298" d="M26.23,49.485a1.621,1.621,0,0,0,.3-.028.526.526,0,1,0-.193-1.033.617.617,0,0,1-.574-.225,1.874,1.874,0,0,1-.232-1.772.526.526,0,0,0-1.007-.3,2.915,2.915,0,0,0,.456,2.778,1.672,1.672,0,0,0,1.251.584" transform="translate(8.644 -33.728)" fill="#002855"></path></g></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/emerging-risks/foot-and-mouth-disease" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="d8ffe1d7-18c0-41f9-8d4e-bdf13df6d077" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)">Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)</a></h3><p>Affects all cloven-hoofed animals including cattle, sheep, goats, camelids, deer and pigs. It does not affect horses or zebras.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="lsd" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><defs><clippath id="clip-path"><rect id="Rectangle_3050" data-name="Rectangle 3050" width="84.231" height="70.191" fill="#002855"></rect></clippath></defs><rect id="Rectangle_3078" data-name="Rectangle 3078" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><g id="Group_2128" data-name="Group 2128" transform="translate(0.04 5.5)"><g id="Group_2095" data-name="Group 2095" clip-path="url(#clip-path)"><path id="Path_5874" data-name="Path 5874" 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d="M65.5,50.515a3.71,3.71,0,0,1-.945-.12c-4.835-1.272-5.237-5.26-5.252-5.429l2.575-.224,0-.017c.028.242.358,2.387,3.336,3.171a1.251,1.251,0,0,0,.494.02l.618-.086-3.881-5.306A1.292,1.292,0,1,1,64.524,41l5.156,7.05a1.292,1.292,0,0,1-.865,2.043l-2.758.385a4.084,4.084,0,0,1-.563.04" transform="translate(-40.884 -27.901)" fill="#002855"></path></g></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/emerging-risks/lumpy-skin-disease" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="872e0db9-d743-4390-9aa2-c9781f7fd3c6" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Lumpy skin disease (LSD)">Lumpy skin disease (LSD)</a></h3><p>Affects cattle and buffalo. LSD is spread by biting flies, mosquitoes and ticks, or directly from animal to animal. It can travel long distances in infected animals or contaminated items.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="see_more_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>See more</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="more-cards card-container paragraph paragraph--type--cards paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-cards field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/identify-pests-diseases" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="97f9d15f-79c0-4553-9a89-c9ac01259f05" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Identify signs of pests and diseases">About pests and diseases</a></h3><p>How to identify signs of animal or plant pests and diseases. This includes new weeds, diseases in wildlife and exotic ants.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/during-outbreak" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="0abb06c5-dd7c-4832-88b2-f0410cda2389" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="What to do during an outbreak">What to do during an outbreak</a></h3><p>How to report, what to report, and what to do next.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/training" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="c03ef1e7-eba3-465a-8e1a-192e0025b2a7" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Training for pest and disease outbreak responses">Training resources</a></h3><p>Find training resources to help you understand your role during an outbreak.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:27:15 +0000 isaac.townsend 83 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au How to prepare and respond to outbreaks https://www.outbreak.gov.au/prepare-respond <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">How to prepare and respond to outbreaks</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>isaac.townsend</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2023-06-15T10:26:22+10:00" title="Thursday, June 15, 2023 - 10:26" class="datetime">Thu, 2023-06-15 10:26</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div id="body_content" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>What you can do</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Australia’s biosecurity system is broad. Everyone can help keep Australia safe. If you work in agriculture, in a supply chain in animal or plant health, or if you are travelling overseas or buying goods online, you can play your part.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="bau_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="bau-cards card-container paragraph paragraph--type--cards paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-cards field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="signs_of_pests" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3069" data-name="Rectangle 3069" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><g id="Group_2150" data-name="Group 2150" transform="translate(-4.345 -0.39)"><path id="Path_5949" data-name="Path 5949" d="M29.436,0A29.436,29.436,0,1,1,0,29.436,29.436,29.436,0,0,1,29.436,0Z" transform="translate(11.558 6.558)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5948" data-name="Path 5948" d="M305.312,302.264,318.851,315.5A8.482,8.482,0,1,1,306.856,327.5l-12.731-14.048" transform="translate(-239.203 -250.762)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><line id="Line_619" data-name="Line 619" x2="11.499" y2="11.499" transform="translate(64.681 59.681)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="3"></line></g><g id="Group_2147" data-name="Group 2147" transform="translate(-486.075 -526.561)"><path id="Path_5919" data-name="Path 5919" d="M74.154,20.852a17.132,17.132,0,0,1,1.81,18.9" transform="translate(450.392 516.708)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5920" data-name="Path 5920" d="M47.078,65.529s-.243-1.287-.719-1.355-8.008,2.918-10.417,1.73" transform="translate(468.966 494.942)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5921" data-name="Path 5921" d="M37.269,75.545s-1.616-1.043-2.177-.723S30.76,82,25.7,83.437" transform="translate(474.084 490.35)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5922" data-name="Path 5922" d="M65.492,52.246l1.9-5.157L65.356,42" transform="translate(454.693 506.369)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5923" data-name="Path 5923" d="M100.722,61.767a17.139,17.139,0,0,0-18.97-1.97" transform="translate(446.677 498.647)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5924" data-name="Path 5924" d="M72.328,81.892c.164.041,1.237.327,1.3.767.066.475-2.918,8.008-1.732,10.42" transform="translate(451.633 486.863)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5925" data-name="Path 5925" d="M55.917,91.432c.1.153.986,1.62.68,2.151-.317.562-7.18,4.334-8.616,9.393" transform="translate(463.724 482.355)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5926" data-name="Path 5926" d="M77.673,72.283l5.157-1.9,5.09,2.036" transform="translate(448.671 492.49)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><line id="Line_612" data-name="Line 612" x1="13.98" y2="13.98" transform="translate(509.158 561.771)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></line><path id="Path_5927" data-name="Path 5927" d="M40.887,79.745A22.617,22.617,0,0,0,59.531,66.105a3.992,3.992,0,0,0,.135-5.9l-.051-.051a3.993,3.993,0,0,0-5.9.135A22.722,22.722,0,0,0,40.121,78.978a.7.7,0,0,0,.2.561l0,0A.7.7,0,0,0,40.887,79.745Z" transform="translate(467.034 498.108)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5928" data-name="Path 5928" d="M72.537,67.438a10.89,10.89,0,0,1-3.376-2.392l-.051-.051a10.89,10.89,0,0,1-2.392-3.376" transform="translate(454.028 496.776)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path><path id="Path_5929" data-name="Path 5929" d="M77.705,61.526c1.4-1.25.043-3.078.043-3.078s-1.772-1.3-3.021.1" transform="translate(450.112 498.594)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2.5"></path></g></svg><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/identify-pests-diseases" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="97f9d15f-79c0-4553-9a89-c9ac01259f05" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Identify signs of pests and diseases">What to look for</a></h3><p>Learn how to identify signs of animal or plant pests and diseases. This includes new weeds, diseases in wildlife or exotic species such as ants.</p></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="prevent_prepare" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><defs><clippath id="clip-path"><rect id="Rectangle_3070" data-name="Rectangle 3070" width="49.596" height="74.061" fill="none"></rect></clippath></defs><rect id="Rectangle_3071" data-name="Rectangle 3071" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><g id="Group_2151" data-name="Group 2151" transform="translate(18 7.037)"><g id="Group_2151-2" data-name="Group 2151" transform="translate(0 -0.001)" clip-path="url(#clip-path)"><path id="Path_6027" data-name="Path 6027" d="M40.2,9.353h5.057A4.351,4.351,0,0,1,49.6,13.694V69.719a4.351,4.351,0,0,1-4.342,4.341H4.342A4.352,4.352,0,0,1,0,69.719V13.694A4.352,4.352,0,0,1,4.342,9.353H9.4V7.382A2.226,2.226,0,0,1,11.621,5.16H16.3A1.84,1.84,0,0,0,18,4.126a7.664,7.664,0,0,1,13.592,0A1.84,1.84,0,0,0,33.3,5.16h4.674A2.226,2.226,0,0,1,40.2,7.382ZM9.4,11.4H4.342a2.3,2.3,0,0,0-2.293,2.293V69.719a2.3,2.3,0,0,0,2.293,2.293H45.255a2.3,2.3,0,0,0,2.293-2.293V13.694A2.3,2.3,0,0,0,45.255,11.4H40.2v2.2a2.226,2.226,0,0,1-2.222,2.222H11.621A2.226,2.226,0,0,1,9.4,13.6ZM27.707,2.855A5.608,5.608,0,0,0,19.819,5.07,3.934,3.934,0,0,1,16.3,7.209H11.621a.177.177,0,0,0-.174.174V13.6a.177.177,0,0,0,.174.174H37.975a.177.177,0,0,0,.174-.174V7.382a.177.177,0,0,0-.174-.174H33.3A3.934,3.934,0,0,1,29.777,5.07a5.639,5.639,0,0,0-2.07-2.215" transform="translate(0 0)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6028" data-name="Path 6028" d="M131.438,333.872a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,1.448-1.448l1.842,1.842,3.526-4.288a1.021,1.021,0,0,1,1.576,1.3l-4.187,5.092a1.025,1.025,0,0,1-1.568.144Z" transform="translate(-123.346 -310.019)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6029" data-name="Path 6029" d="M350.626,381.215a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0-2.049h18.982a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0,2.049Z" transform="translate(-328.829 -356.636)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6030" data-name="Path 6030" d="M131.438,541.676a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,1.448-1.448l1.842,1.842,3.526-4.288a1.021,1.021,0,0,1,1.576,1.3l-4.187,5.092a1.04,1.04,0,0,1-.12.144,1.024,1.024,0,0,1-1.448,0Z" transform="translate(-123.346 -505.476)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6031" data-name="Path 6031" d="M131.438,749.48a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,1.448-1.448l1.842,1.842,3.526-4.288a1.021,1.021,0,1,1,1.576,1.3l-4.187,5.092a1.025,1.025,0,0,1-1.568.144Z" transform="translate(-123.346 -700.933)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6032" data-name="Path 6032" d="M131.438,957.286a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,1.448-1.448l1.842,1.842,3.526-4.288a1.021,1.021,0,0,1,1.576,1.3l-4.187,5.092a1.025,1.025,0,0,1-1.568.144Z" transform="translate(-123.346 -896.391)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6033" data-name="Path 6033" d="M350.626,589.019a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0-2.049h18.982a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0,2.049Z" transform="translate(-328.829 -552.092)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6034" data-name="Path 6034" d="M350.626,796.824a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0-2.049h18.982a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0,2.049Z" transform="translate(-328.829 -747.55)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6035" data-name="Path 6035" d="M350.626,1004.628a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0-2.049h18.982a1.024,1.024,0,1,1,0,2.049Z" transform="translate(-328.829 -943.006)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6036" data-name="Path 6036" d="M394,104.081a1.474,1.474,0,1,1-1.474,1.474A1.474,1.474,0,0,1,394,104.081" transform="translate(-369.203 -97.896)" fill="#002855" fill-rule="evenodd"></path></g></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/prevent-prepare" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="8e86ef99-911c-4914-9cba-68c7fad299ca" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Prevent and prepare for outbreaks">Prevent and prepare</a></h3><p>See how your actions can protect Australia from exotic animal and plant pests or diseases. How to prepare for an outbreak that might affect you.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="vial-virus-solid" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3063" data-name="Rectangle 3063" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><path id="vial-virus-solid-2" data-name="vial-virus-solid" d="M4.875,32a4.909,4.909,0,0,0,0,9.818V86a14.6,14.6,0,0,0,25.563,9.772,8.571,8.571,0,0,1,2.5-6c.03-.031.015-.092-.03-.092a8.591,8.591,0,0,1,0-17.182c.046,0,.061-.061.03-.092a8.626,8.626,0,0,1,0-12.15,8.209,8.209,0,0,1,1.188-1V41.818a4.909,4.909,0,0,0,0-9.818H4.875Zm9.75,24.546V41.818h9.75V56.546ZM32.906,84.773a4.969,4.969,0,0,1,3.489,8.468,3.685,3.685,0,0,0,0,5.2,3.637,3.637,0,0,0,5.164,0,4.922,4.922,0,0,1,8.409,3.513,3.656,3.656,0,1,0,7.312,0,4.926,4.926,0,0,1,8.409-3.513,3.623,3.623,0,0,0,5.164,0,3.7,3.7,0,0,0,0-5.2,4.969,4.969,0,0,1,3.489-8.468,3.682,3.682,0,0,0,0-7.364,4.969,4.969,0,0,1-3.489-8.468,3.685,3.685,0,0,0,0-5.2,3.637,3.637,0,0,0-5.164,0,4.926,4.926,0,0,1-8.409-3.513,3.656,3.656,0,1,0-7.312,0,4.926,4.926,0,0,1-8.409,3.513,3.623,3.623,0,0,0-5.164,0,3.7,3.7,0,0,0,0,5.2,4.965,4.965,0,0,1-3.489,8.468,3.682,3.682,0,0,0,0,7.364Zm15.844-13.5a4.909,4.909,0,1,1-4.875,4.909A4.892,4.892,0,0,1,48.75,71.273ZM54.844,86A3.656,3.656,0,1,1,58.5,89.682,3.669,3.669,0,0,1,54.844,86Z" transform="translate(3.5 -26.5)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-width="2"></path></svg></div><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/during-outbreak" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="0abb06c5-dd7c-4832-88b2-f0410cda2389" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="What to do during an outbreak">During an outbreak</a></h3><p>What to do during an animal or plant pest or disease outbreak. How to report, what to report, and what to do next.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="training" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3072" data-name="Rectangle 3072" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><g id="Group_2152" data-name="Group 2152" transform="translate(-651.319 -1055.669)"><path id="Path_6037" data-name="Path 6037" d="M18.551,73.2H95.086a2.554,2.554,0,0,0,2.551-2.551V63H65.22l-2.551,2.551h-11.7L48.418,63H16v7.653A2.554,2.554,0,0,0,18.551,73.2m0-7.653h28.81L49.913,68.1H63.725l2.552-2.551H95.086v5.1H18.551Z" transform="translate(637 1056.472)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6038" data-name="Path 6038" d="M22.551,28.827a1.278,1.278,0,0,1,1.276-1.276H87.606a1.278,1.278,0,0,1,1.276,1.276V70.921h2.551V28.827A3.831,3.831,0,0,0,87.606,25H23.827A3.831,3.831,0,0,0,20,28.827V70.921h2.551Z" transform="translate(638.102 1046)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6039" data-name="Path 6039" d="M85.228,29H24V69.819H85.228ZM26.551,31.551H82.677V67.267H26.551Z" transform="translate(639.205 1047.102)" fill="#002855"></path></g><g id="Group_2153" data-name="Group 2153" transform="translate(1 1)"><path id="Path_5958" data-name="Path 5958" d="M89.637,97.613a11.085,11.085,0,1,1,11.085-11.085A11.1,11.1,0,0,1,89.637,97.613m0-19.879a8.794,8.794,0,1,0,8.794,8.794,8.8,8.8,0,0,0-8.794-8.794" transform="translate(-61.819 -48.113)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_5959" data-name="Path 5959" d="M155.49,101.637l-7.16-7.16a1.167,1.167,0,0,1-.342-.826V83.53h2.335v9.638l6.818,6.818Z" transform="translate(-122.17 -55.2)" fill="#002855"></path></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/training" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="c03ef1e7-eba3-465a-8e1a-192e0025b2a7" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Training for pest and disease outbreak responses">Training resources</a></h3><p>Find training resources to help you understand your role during an outbreak.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="media" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="102.619" height="85" viewbox="0 0 102.619 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3076" data-name="Rectangle 3076" width="85" height="85" transform="translate(9.081)" fill="none"></rect><path id="Path_6265" data-name="Path 6265" d="M17.231,6.4H50.144a7.072,7.072,0,0,1,6.516,4.367h5.6l7.166,14.9h5.3A8.754,8.754,0,0,1,83.469,34.4v2.273l9.872-5.656a6.3,6.3,0,0,1,3.5-1.059h0a6.356,6.356,0,0,1,2.824.666l.07.035.065.043a6.329,6.329,0,0,1,2.8,5.688V63.335a6.33,6.33,0,0,1-2.8,5.687l-.035.024-.037.021a5.374,5.374,0,0,1-2.722.71h-.018a7.391,7.391,0,0,1-3.625-1.055l-9.9-5.669v2.271a8.756,8.756,0,0,1-8.745,8.746H8.746A8.756,8.756,0,0,1,0,65.325V34.405a8.754,8.754,0,0,1,8.745-8.741H63.415l-4.559-9.481h-2.2a7.07,7.07,0,0,1-6.513,4.367H17.231a7.074,7.074,0,1,1,0-14.148Zm43.455,6.867H54.794l-.242-.938A4.569,4.569,0,0,0,50.141,8.9H17.231a4.574,4.574,0,1,0,0,9.148H50.144a4.568,4.568,0,0,0,4.408-3.429l.242-.938h5.635l6.963,14.481H8.746A6.265,6.265,0,0,0,2.5,34.407V65.323a6.265,6.265,0,0,0,6.248,6.246H74.723a6.265,6.265,0,0,0,6.246-6.248V58.739l13.678,7.835a4.886,4.886,0,0,0,2.4.7h.022a2.87,2.87,0,0,0,1.388-.359,3.827,3.827,0,0,0,1.655-3.444l0-.047V36.3l0-.047a3.178,3.178,0,0,0-3.263-3.793h0a3.811,3.811,0,0,0-2.144.657l-.039.026L80.969,40.989V34.405a6.265,6.265,0,0,0-6.248-6.241h-6.87Z" transform="translate(0 1.503)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6266" data-name="Path 6266" d="M20.846,37.606H63.961a9.988,9.988,0,1,1,0,19.976H20.847a9.988,9.988,0,0,1,0-19.976ZM63.961,55.082a7.488,7.488,0,1,0,0-14.976H20.848a7.488,7.488,0,0,0,0,14.976Z" transform="translate(-0.706 -0.524)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6267" data-name="Path 6267" d="M23.783,42.157h0a5.731,5.731,0,1,1-5.733,5.731A5.748,5.748,0,0,1,23.785,42.157Zm0,8.961a3.231,3.231,0,1,0-3.231-3.231A3.235,3.235,0,0,0,23.783,51.118Z" transform="translate(-1.173 -0.82)" fill="#002855"></path><path id="Path_6268" data-name="Path 6268" d="M36.8,42.157h0a5.731,5.731,0,1,1-5.733,5.731A5.748,5.748,0,0,1,36.807,42.157Zm0,8.961a3.231,3.231,0,1,0-3.231-3.231A3.235,3.235,0,0,0,36.8,51.118Z" transform="translate(-2.019 -0.82)" fill="#002855"></path></svg></div><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/during-outbreak/media-arrangements" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="559b32d1-276d-4547-af2a-3138eeb48656" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Advice for media during an outbreak">Media arrangements</a></h3><p>Information for media reporting on an outbreak.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div><svg id="report" xmlns="http://www.w3.org/2000/svg" width="85" height="85" viewbox="0 0 85 85"><rect id="Rectangle_3066" data-name="Rectangle 3066" width="85" height="85" fill="none"></rect><g id="Group_2148" data-name="Group 2148" transform="translate(6.893 6.661)"><path id="Path_5972" data-name="Path 5972" d="M115.5,68.336h0a3.69,3.69,0,0,1-3.66-3.221l-2.01-15.707a5.716,5.716,0,1,1,11.34,0l-2.01,15.707A3.69,3.69,0,0,1,115.5,68.336Z" transform="translate(-79.176 -29.652)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5973" data-name="Path 5973" d="M124.521,168.855A4.854,4.854,0,1,1,119.667,164,4.854,4.854,0,0,1,124.521,168.855Z" transform="translate(-83.205 -119.185)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-miterlimit="10" stroke-width="2"></path><path id="Path_5974" data-name="Path 5974" d="M5,72.679l2.116-.361a37.4,37.4,0,0,0,16.133-6.937A32.888,32.888,0,1,0,13.114,54.82l-.218.9A46.6,46.6,0,0,1,6.44,70.508Z" transform="translate(-4.393 -3)" fill="none" stroke="#002855" stroke-linecap="round" stroke-linejoin="round" stroke-width="2"></path></g></svg></div><h3><a href="/prepare-respond/report" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="736c43c9-a39e-4d25-a240-bfda2ca9735b" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Report a concern">Report a concern</a></h3><p>Report anything unusual, even if you’re not sure. Find the right number to report your concern to the relevant state or territory authority.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="see_more_cards" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>See more</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="more-cards card-container paragraph paragraph--type--cards paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-cards field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/emerging-risks" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="4fce9d62-0941-4d3f-88b3-fcd0fa7ca081" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Emerging risks to Australia">Risks to Australia</a></h3><p>Advice on pest and disease threats that have been detected outside Australia.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div class="card-item paragraph paragraph--type--card paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a href="/our-role" data-entity-type="node" data-entity-uuid="57d3b7eb-55cd-4b6b-906c-e9cda6eb291d" data-entity-substitution="canonical" title="Our role in a pest or disease outbreak">Our role</a></h3><p>How government and industry coordinate a response to an exotic pest or disease outbreak.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> Thu, 15 Jun 2023 00:26:22 +0000 isaac.townsend 82 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au Emergency animal diseases: A field guide for Australian veterinarians https://www.outbreak.gov.au/prepare-respond/identify-pests-diseases/emergency-animal-diseases-field-guide <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Emergency animal diseases: A field guide for Australian veterinarians</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>bec.billingham</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2019-08-24T14:04:05+10:00" title="Saturday, August 24, 2019 - 14:04" class="datetime">Sat, 2019-08-24 14:04</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>About the product</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>An outbreak of an emergency animal disease (EAD) in Australia could cause significant social and economic harm. They can affect the health of animals, humans and the environment.&nbsp;</p><p>This field guide details important emergency animal diseases that do not exist in Australia or that are rare. It will help you to:</p><ul><li>include appropriate EADs in your differential diagnosis</li><li>take appropriate action if you see signs of an unusual disease.</li></ul><p>New diseases of animals continue to emerge. Veterinarians must investigate and report unusual outbreaks of disease in domestic animals.</p><h3>Training</h3><p>Vets can also access a <a href="https://eadonline.com.au/">series of online training modules on EAD surveillance</a>.</p><p>This training will:</p><ul><li>remind you of your obligations to identify and report cases of suspected EADs to government authorities</li><li>identify the right reporting channels</li><li>outline key response strategies and intervention options in an EAD event</li><li>provide key roles for private vets to detect, investigate, report and respond to EAD events</li><li>help you source technical resources on EADs.</li></ul><div class="resource-cards"><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h2>Download</h2><div class="downloads"><p><a href="/sites/default/files/documents/emergency-animal-diseases-field-guide-aus-vets_0.pdf" aria-label="Outbreak media guidelines">Download PDF - 3.48 MB</a></p><p><a href="/sites/default/files/documents/emergency-animal-diseases-field-guide-aus-vets_0.docx" aria-label="Outbreak media guidelines">Download Word - 19.3 MB</a></p></div></div></div></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="publication-footer-print clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-footer field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>© Commonwealth of Australia, 2023</p><p><img class="publication-creative-commons-logo" src="/themes/custom/custom/outbreak/images/cc-logo.svg" alt="Creative commons logo" /> This publication is licensed by Commonwealth of Australia under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international licence.</p><p>We acknowledge the Traditional Owners of country throughout Australia and recognise their continuing connection to land, waters and culture. We pay our respects to their Elders past, present and emerging.</p><p class="publication-footer-url">outbreak.gov.au</p></div> </div> </div> Sat, 24 Aug 2019 04:04:05 +0000 bec.billingham 99 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au Emergency animal diseases: A field guide for Australian veterinarians https://www.outbreak.gov.au/node/117 <span class="field field--name-title field--type-string field--label-hidden">Emergency animal diseases: A field guide for Australian veterinarians</span> <span class="field field--name-uid field--type-entity-reference field--label-hidden"><span>bec.billingham</span></span> <span class="field field--name-created field--type-created field--label-hidden"><time datetime="2019-08-13T14:14:00+10:00" title="Tuesday, August 13, 2019 - 14:14" class="datetime">Tue, 2019-08-13 14:14</time> </span> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__items"> <div class="field__item"> <div id="forward" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>Foreward</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Animal production in Australia is a significant contributor to the economy and a major employer of rural and regional Australians. We are fortunate to be free from most major diseases of livestock that impede production, affect trade and cause serious animal welfare concerns. Historically, this can be attributed in part to the distance and limited movements of animals, animal products and people from other major livestock producing regions.</p><p>This no longer is the case. International movement of passengers, mail and cargo are increasing and the threats of an incursion are becoming more prominent. For instance, in 2015-16 there were over 20 million international travellers, 42 million consignments of cargo and 158 million international mail items coming into the country.</p><p>Freedom from emergency animal diseases offers a distinct market advantage for exports of Australian animals and animal products. Estimates from 2015 suggest that, on average, freedom from foot-and-mouth disease and highly pathogenic avian influenza provide up to $13,172 and $6,000 annual profit for broadacre livestock and poultry producers, respectively.</p><p>The chapters in this book are written by some of the foremost experts in their field and provide the information veterinarians need to help them with the early detection, diagnosis and control of exotic and emerging infectious diseases in livestock.</p><p><strong>Dr Beth Cookson</strong><br>Australian Chief Veterinary Officer<br>Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry</p><p><strong>Trevor Drew</strong><br>Director, Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="preface" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>Preface</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>Outbreaks of emergency animal diseases (EADs) in Australia have the potential to cause significant socio-economic impacts, and affect animal, human and environmental health. Many of these diseases are exotic to Australia.</p><p>New diseases of animals continue to emerge and with this trend likely to continue it is important that veterinarians are prepared to investigate any unusual outbreaks of disease in domestic animals.</p><p>This field guide provides field veterinarians with readily accessible information on EADs. It will help those in the field include appropriate EADs in their differential diagnoses, and take appropriate action if presented with signs of an unusual disease.</p><p>Early and accurate diagnosis of any case of an EAD is essential for effective control, since controlling localised disease is more effective than managing widespread disease.</p><p>Exclusion testing of EADs conducted on suspect case investigations increases the likelihood of early detection of any EAD events in Australia. All negative laboratory test results generated through this process provide data that support Australia’s claims of freedom from EADs for international market access purposes.</p><p>This field guide does not provide exhaustive information on each disease, focusing instead on information that veterinarians need when confronted with disease situations in the field. It is not a textbook, and we refer readers to more comprehensive sources at the end of each disease chapter. Likewise, the discussion of laboratory procedures is limited to information that helps with collecting and submitting useful diagnostic samples.</p><p>This field guide covers high priority syndromes and diseases of domestic terrestrial animals. It is intended that further syndromes and disease chapters will be added over time. It complements the <a href="https://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/our-publications/ausvetplan-manuals-and-documents/">Australian Veterinary Emergency Plan (AUSVETPLAN)</a>, Australia’s coordinated national response plan for controlling and eradicating EADs.</p><p>Other materials are available to assist disease recognition and investigation in aquatic animals, and in wildlife. The Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has published <a href="http://www.agriculture.gov.au/SiteCollectionDocuments/animal-plant/aquatic/field-guide/4th-edition/aquatic-disease-user-guide-edition-4.pdf">Aquatic Animal Diseases Significant to Australia: Identification Field Guide 4th Edition</a>. The Wildlife Health Australia website also includes <a href="https://wildlifehealthaustralia.com.au/Resources/TabId/161/PgrID/821/PageID/6/PID/821/CategoryID/99/CategoryName/Investigation-and-diagnostics/Default.aspx">resources to support investigation of wildlife diseases</a>.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="acronyms" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>Acronyms and abbreviations</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><table><thead><tr><th>Term</th><th>Definition</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>ACDP</td><td>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness</td></tr><tr><td>AFIP</td><td>Armed Forces Institute of Pathology</td></tr><tr><td>AHS</td><td>African horse sickness</td></tr><tr><td>AI</td><td>Avian influenza</td></tr><tr><td>ASF</td><td>African swine fever</td></tr><tr><td>BSE</td><td>Bovine spongiform encephalopathy</td></tr><tr><td>CFSPH</td><td>The Center for Food Security and Public Health</td></tr><tr><td>CSF</td><td>Classical swine fever</td></tr><tr><td>EAD</td><td>Emergency animal disease</td></tr><tr><td>EuFMD</td><td>European commission for the control of foot-and-mouth disease</td></tr><tr><td>FMD</td><td>Foot-and-mouth disease</td></tr><tr><td>EHD</td><td>Epizootic haemorrhagic disease</td></tr><tr><td>EI</td><td>Equine influenza</td></tr><tr><td>HPAI</td><td>Highly pathogenic avian influenza</td></tr><tr><td>LPAI</td><td>Low pathogenic avian influenza</td></tr><tr><td>LSD</td><td>Lumpy skin disease</td></tr><tr><td>OIE</td><td>World Organisation for Animal Health</td></tr><tr><td>PED</td><td>Porcine epidemic diarrhoea</td></tr><tr><td>PIADC</td><td>Plum Island Animal Disease Center</td></tr><tr><td>PPR</td><td>Peste des petits ruminants</td></tr><tr><td>PrP</td><td>Protease resistant protein</td></tr><tr><td>PRRS</td><td>Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome</td></tr><tr><td>RVF</td><td>Rift Valley fever</td></tr><tr><td>SVD</td><td>Swine vesicular disease</td></tr><tr><td>TGE</td><td>Transmissible gastroenteritis</td></tr><tr><td>USDA</td><td>United States Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries</td></tr><tr><td>vCJD</td><td>variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease</td></tr><tr><td>VS</td><td>Vesicular stomatitis</td></tr><tr><td>WAHIS</td><td>World Animal Health Information System</td></tr></tbody></table></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_1" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>1. General information</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="1_1_roles_responsibilities">1.1 Roles and responsibilities of field veterinarians in emergency animal disease detection and reporting</a></h3><p>Australia’s animal health system relies on veterinarians reporting any suspicion of an emergency animal disease (EAD).</p><p>EADs are diseases that have been agreed by governments and industry in Australia as capable of having severe effects on trade, production, the environment, and/or human health. Most are diseases exotic to Australia but some are endemic diseases such as Hendra virus infection and anthrax. Others are described as ‘emerging diseases’ because increasing incidence and/or an expanding geographic or host range would result in them having greater trade or public health effects.</p><p>It is important that veterinarians know about EADs for several reasons.</p><ul><li>Early detection and reporting helps prevent the establishment of exotic diseases, or the spread of serious endemic diseases, some with human health implications.</li><li>Investigating any suspected EAD generates evidence that helps support Australia’s animal health status claims.</li><li>Veterinarians have legal and professional requirements to report any suspected EAD.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">When to suspect an emergency animal disease</h4><p>There is a large list of (in some cases, unfamiliar) notifiable animal diseases that veterinarians must report to the government authorities in each state and territory of Australia. All EADs are notifiable animal diseases in all states and territories nationally.</p><p>Broadly, you might suspect EADs in cases where:</p><ul><li>there are abnormal mortality rates (in any species, including birds)</li><li>there are abnormal morbidity rates in animals (including birds)</li><li>there is rapid spread of disease through a herd or flock</li><li>the disease event affects multiple species</li><li>cloven-hooved animals have ulcers, erosions or blisters around the feet, muzzle, udder or teats and/or in the mouth</li><li>cloven-hooved animals are lame and drooling or salivating excessively</li><li>affected animals display unusual nervous signs (or progressing nervous signs)</li><li>there are multiple, deep, fly-struck wounds (particularly if this occurs in northern Australia)</li><li>there is a sudden, sharp and inexplicable fall in production</li><li>there are unusual and concerning clinical signs of disease in animals or birds</li><li>the clinical presentation suggests signs of a particular EAD, including those listed in <a href="#section_3">Section 3</a>.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">How to report an emergency animal disease</h4><p><strong>If you suspect an EAD, phone government animal health authorities immediately from the affected property.</strong></p><p>This is the most important step, because effective disease control relies on early detection.</p><p>Call the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800 675 888</strong> to report the suspected EAD. Government duty veterinarians monitor the hotline and are available to advise you 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.</p><p>Alternatively, notify a state or territory government veterinary officer of the suspected EAD directly.</p><p>Leaving messages is inadequate. Avoid relying on other people to make the notification.</p><p>If you are unable to make a telephone call from the affected property, you should disinfect yourself and your vehicle (as thoroughly as possible in the circumstances) and travel to the nearest site where you can make the call. Ensure you do not enter premises with susceptible animals.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">What information to include in a report</h4><p>You will need to include this basic information in the initial telephone notification:</p><ul><li>the types and approximate numbers of animals on the property (including feral animals) and which species are affected</li><li>a brief description of clinical signs of disease and gross lesions observed</li><li>the disease or diseases suspected</li><li>the name of the owner and/or farm manager</li><li>the full address and telephone number for the property</li><li>the date when the disease was first noticed, approximate numbers of sick and dead animals</li><li>whether any susceptible animals have recently left or been brought onto the property</li></ul><p>This information allows animal health authorities to make the initial disease control and epidemiological tracing to begin.</p><p>You should remain on the property until a government veterinary officer arrives unless otherwise advised. Use this time to <a href="#1_2_safety_personal_protection">implement biosecurity measures</a> to prevent further spread of infection, gather a comprehensive clinical history and epidemiological data on the outbreak from the livestock owner or workers.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Who should take samples and conduct a disease investigation?</h4><p><strong>Although this book provides general guidance, you should seek advice before sampling and conducting a disease investigation.</strong></p><p>This is the decision of the state or territory Chief Veterinary Officer (CVO) or their delegate. It will depend on the circumstances. For example, in cases where there is a high suspicion of an EAD, the CVO would be expected to send a diagnostic team to investigate the outbreak and collect diagnostic samples.</p><p>This will ensure that risks to human and animal health of highly infectious diseases are managed appropriately, and investigations are undertaken effectively.</p><h3><a id="1_2_safety_personal_protection">1.2 Safety, personal protection and containment of infection</a></h3><h4 data-toc="ignore">Biosecurity for personal protection and infection containment</h4><p>When you suspect an EAD, you need to use routine biosecurity procedures to:</p><ul><li><strong>contain infection</strong> to prevent the spread of infectious animal diseases between groups of animals on the property and to animals on other properties</li><li><strong>prevent exposure</strong> of veterinarians and other people (including clients, clinic staff, couriers and laboratory staff) to potential zoonotic agents. Each state and territory identifies the prevention of exposure in occupational health and safety legal requirements.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Containment of infection</h4><p>Containing the infection is of prime concern and you should gain the property owner’s cooperation to:</p><ul><li>secure potentially-infected animals in well-fenced paddocks, yards, buildings, pens or cages, and prevent contact with unaffected herds or flocks of animals</li><li>confine animals as well as potentially-infected livestock products and fomites to the property</li><li>move livestock away from farm borders, particularly in the case of suspected diseases for which the causal organism can be airborne over considerable distances (e.g. foot-and-mouth disease)</li><li>avoid actions that would encourage the dispersal of feral animals from the property</li><li>dissuade people who have had recent contact with livestock from leaving the property</li><li>discourage unnecessary visitors from entering the property.</li></ul><p>Advise any persons on the property to contact a government veterinary officer for instructions on personal disinfection (for containment purposes) before leaving the property.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigating a suspected zoonosis</h4><p>Several animal diseases have serious public health implications. Examples are Hendra virus infection, rabies and Rift Valley fever. In investigating such diseases, you may need extra precautions to prevent infection of personnel by ingestion, inhalation of infected aerosols, or contamination of mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><p>You may need to wear face masks, eye protection and standard protective clothing depending on the suspected disease. This is discussed in the appropriate chapter on each disease.</p><p>Adequate restraint and safe handling of live animals and carcasses is of critical importance, especially where diseases such as rabies are suspected as animals may become aggressive or unpredictable. In addition, when investigating a suspected zoonosis, personal hygiene and disinfection, as well as decontamination of post-mortem sites, must be of the highest standard.</p><p>Advise the client, the farm owner or manager and in-contact family members, farm employees and visitors of the steps they need to take to avoid infection. This should include advice on the safety of consumption of farm products.</p><h3><a id="1_3_general_priciples">1.3 General principles of disease investigation</a></h3><p><strong>The material in this section only provides general information on conducting a disease investigation. Seek advice from government veterinary services when you suspect an EAD.</strong></p><p>A routine process for disease investigation involves assembling evidence and should include (click on the links for relevant sections):</p><ul><li><a href="#entry_and_exit_procedures">implementing biosecurity procedures</a></li><li><a href="#taking_a_case_history">taking a thorough history</a></li><li>determining a <a href="#case_definitions">case definition</a> for the health problem</li><li>conducting overall <a href="#clinical_investigation">clinical assessment</a> of various groups or classes of animals</li><li>performing a thorough clinical examination of affected individual animals</li><li>performing a thorough <a href="#post_mortem_examination">post-mortem examination(s)</a></li><li><a href="#investigation_and_sampling_guidelines">submitting laboratory samples</a> to help make or confirm a diagnosis</li><li><a href="#follow_up">following up</a> disease events to monitor progress.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Routine disease investigation biosecurity procedures</h4><p>Routine disease investigation biosecurity procedures include:</p><ul><li><a href="#pre_visit_preparation">pre-visit preparation</a></li><li><a href="#entry_and_exit_procedures">entry and exit procedures</a> (which include hygiene practices and the use of personal protective equipment)</li><li><a href="#samples_for_laboratory_diagnosis">safe transport of diagnostic specimens</a></li><li><a href="#follow_up">follow-up</a>.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore"><a id="pre_visit_preparation">Pre-visit preparation</a></h5><p>Equip your vehicle with (in easily accessible containers with fitted lids):</p><ul><li>personal protective equipment</li><li>extra clothing (boots and overalls)</li><li>cleaning (disinfection and decontamination) gear (including plastic bags)</li><li>equipment for restraint and humane destruction of animals</li><li>post-mortem instruments</li><li>instruments, containers and media for collection and transport of diagnostic specimens</li><li>telephone numbers and stationery.</li></ul><p>The level of zoonotic disease risk and disease transmission risk presented by different animal disease investigation situations varies considerably. Therefore, it is fitting that you take a risk-based approach to manage the likelihood and consequences of either exposure to potential zoonotic infectious agents or the spread of infectious agents between sites.</p><p>Ensure risk management is commensurate to the level of risk posed. Veterinarians should:</p><ul><li>use the minimum standard of personal protective equipment and biosecurity practices for any disease investigation</li><li>use an enhanced level of personal protective equipment and biosecurity practices where there is greater risk, such as when<ul><li>exposure to a zoonotic pathogen during a disease investigation is plausible</li><li>the situation suggests that the disease agent may be highly transferable via fomites</li></ul></li><li>use the highest level of personal protective equipment and biosecurity practices when the risk is highest, that is, potentially life-threatening zoonoses are involved. Examples would be suspected cases of Hendra virus infection, Australian bat lyssavirus infection or highly pathogenic avian influenza. Veterinarians need to keep abreast of the current guidelines and procedures for handling such cases.</li></ul><p>It is suggested that veterinarians use a checklist (see an example in <a href="#appendix-b_2">Appendix B</a>) of equipment for disease investigation. Veterinary vehicles should carry supplies for both high- and low-risk activities.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore"><a id="entry_and_exit_procedures">Entry and exit procedures</a></h4><p>In line with the principles of the perceived level of risk, practitioners should determine for each visit what entry and exit procedures are required.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Low biosecurity risk sites</h5><p>For routine, low biosecurity risk site visits, standard procedures might include:</p><ul><li>wearing clean overalls (regular or disposable)</li><li>wearing new, clean boots and/or washing footwear before entry</li><li>using clean instruments and equipment (in clean containers)</li><li>wearing gloves prior to handling animals or carcasses</li><li>wearing coverall clothing and protective footwear</li><li>maintaining hygienic processes when handling biological samples</li><li>safely packing biological samples</li><li>removing, bagging and disposing of used gloves, disposable overalls and other wastes before exiting the property</li><li>cleaning instruments in soapy water</li><li>cleaning boots thoroughly (grooves in the soles and the outside) prior to exiting the property</li><li>removing and bagging any dirty garments (such as overalls) prior to exiting the property</li><li>washing hands prior to exiting the property</li><li>cleaning and disinfecting clothes and equipment, replacing materials and disposing of contaminated waste in a biosecure way.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Higher biosecurity risk sites</h5><p>For higher risk visits where there is a greater suspicion of (or likelihood of) disease spread, veterinarians should follow more thorough entry and exit procedures, and adopt more stringent personal hygiene and PPE measures. It is the practitioner’s responsibility to align these to disease specific procedures and the situation presented.</p><p>It is useful to have these processes detailed in clinic standard operating procedures that are carried in the vehicle. Ensure the equipment needed to follow these steps is packed in the vehicle at all times, as you will not always receive warning of when you will require them.</p><div class="columns"><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/entry-exit-diagram_large.jpg" width="898" height="491" alt="Figure 1.3.1" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 1.3.1 is a diagrammatic representation of a proposed entry and exit decontamination site suitable for higher risk visits. Figure adapted from Guidelines for veterinarians handling potential Hendra virus infection in horses Version 5.1 (2010) published by <a href="https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0005/126770/2913_-Guidelines-for-veterinarians-handling-potential-Hendra-virus-infection-in-horses-V5.1.pdf">Biosecurity Queensland</a></figcaption></figure></div><p>When attending cases where the zoonotic and/or infectious risk has been assessed as high, veterinarians must wear full personal protective equipment during clinical examination and post-mortem examination. This may include the use of P2 or P3 masks, eye protection, double disposable gloves and involve strict protocols.</p><p>This includes situations where there is a suspicion of a significant zoonotic agent (e.g. Hendra virus infection, highly pathogenic avian influenza, anthrax, rabies lyssavirus infection, bat lyssavirus infection, Rift Valley fever, Nipah virus infection and transmissible spongiform encephalopathies).</p><p>When attending sites with a <strong>high</strong> biosecurity risk, follow a checklist (see <a href="#table_1_3_1">Table 1.3.1</a> for an example) to implement high-level biosecurity protection.</p><p><a href="#table_1_3_1">Table 1.3.1</a> and <a href="#table_1_3_2">Table 1.3.2</a> provide checklists for biosecurity entry and exit procedures.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">High biosecurity risk site visit checklist</h5><table id="table_1_3_1"><caption>Table 1.3.1 Checklist for biosecurity entry procedures</caption><tbody><tr><td><p>Park your vehicle at a distance from livestock handling areas. to minimise the possibility that your vehicle will become contaminated.</p><p>Leave your watch and all jewellery items in the vehicle.</p><p>Retrieve all items required for the disease investigation from the car so you do not have to return.</p><p>Identify <strong>clean</strong>, <strong>dirty</strong> and <strong>transition</strong> zones between your vehicle and the livestock handling area (Figure 1.3.1).</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Set up decontamination equipment in the transition zone and lay out a ground sheet.</p><p>In the <strong>transition zone</strong>, place:</p><ul><li>a bucket of disinfectant for a footbath</li><li>a second bucket or spray bottle of disinfectant</li><li>scrubbing brush</li><li>two plastic bags with ties for waste.</li></ul><p>In the <strong>clean zone</strong>, place:</p><ul><li>a bucket or spray bottle of disinfectant</li><li>two plastic bags with ties for personal protective equipment disposal.</li></ul></td></tr><tr><td><p>Put on personal protective equipment while in <strong>clean zone</strong>, being sure to:</p><ul><li>wash hands with soap and dry</li><li>put on impermeable overalls with legs outside boots</li><li>put on a respirator (if required) and check the fit</li><li>put on eye protection, ensuring it fits snugly over respirator</li><li>put on two pairs of gloves (double gloved) with the outer pair fitting snugly over overall sleeves.</li><li>secure the outer glove onto the sleeves of impermeable overalls with tape over gloves onto sleeves.</li></ul><p>The outer packing of specimen transport containers should not be taken into the dirty zone.</p></td></tr><tr><td><p>Enter the <strong>dirty zone</strong>. While on the property, select suitable areas for ante-mortem and post-mortem examination of animals. Conduct examination, sampling or post-mortem, and:</p><ul><li>double bag samples</li><li>wipe each packing layer with disinfectant.</li></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><table id="table_1_3_2"><caption>Table 1.3.2 Biosecurity exit procedures</caption><tbody><tr><td><p>At the completion of examinations (clinical or post-mortem) and collection of diagnostic specimens:</p><ul><li>make arrangements for the safe disposal of carcasses</li><li>make arrangements to dispose any contaminated objects that are no longer required. These materials may be left on site for subsequent destruction if they cannot be moved safely</li><li>clean the ground or other surfaces (including instruments) contaminated by blood, excretions or tissues as thoroughly as possible and disinfect.</li></ul></td></tr><tr><td><p>While still in the <strong>dirty zone</strong>:</p><ul><li>remove gross contamination and use a hose or tub of water and soap/detergent to clean boots, overalls, gloves and instruments/equipment</li><li>immerse instruments/equipment in an appropriate concentration of disinfectant solution for at least 10 minutes (or leave behind for subsequent disinfection by a specialised team).</li></ul></td></tr><tr><td><p>Return to the <strong>transition zone</strong> and:</p><ul><li>put waste in a plastic bag, disinfect it, put it in a second bag and disinfect again, then place in clean zone</li><li>disinfect boots and wash or spray hands, equipment and samples with appropriate disinfectant</li><li>wash hands, face and other exposed skin surfaces with soap and water. Your nose should be blown several times into disposable tissues.</li></ul><p>Once in the <strong>clean zone</strong>:</p><ul><li>remove outer gloves and wash or spray inner gloves with disinfectant</li><li>remove overalls and boots, remove eye protection, then remove respirator once any dust has settled</li><li>put personal protective equipment in a plastic bag</li><li>remove inner gloves, put in plastic bag with other personal protective equipment and close securely</li><li>disinfect plastic bag then put in second plastic bag and disinfect again</li><li>wash hands with soap and dry hands thoroughly.</li></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><h4 data-toc="ignore"><a id="clinical_investigation">Assembling the evidence for diagnosis</a></h4><h5 data-toc="ignore"><a id="taking_a_case_history">Taking a case history</a></h5><p>Taking a careful history of the events that have occurred, formulating a case definition to clarify precisely what is being investigated, and doing some basic epidemiology are important components of a disease investigation.</p><p>Taking a history requires the collection of accurate, quality information. Preparing a standard history collection template can help with gathering evidence (see an example in <a href="#appendix-a_2">Appendix A</a>).</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Clinical investigation</h5><p>Several specific guidelines for veterinarians performing clinical livestock disease investigations are to:</p><ul><li>use personal protective equipment appropriate to the situation</li><li>begin investigation with the least affected groups of animals</li><li>clinically examine representative numbers of clinically affected and unaffected animals</li><li>determine a working case definition</li><li>take samples from an the appropriate number of animals for laboratory testing, based on advice from government veterinary officers</li><li>consider taking samples from affected and unaffected animals where pertinent</li><li>take an appropriate range of samples</li><li>always take body temperatures (remember that pyrexia is a key finding in many EADs)</li><li>ensure the proper restraint of animals, which is necessary both for personal safety and to ensure that a comprehensive examination of individuals can be done.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Selection of animals for clinical examination</h5><p>It is important to select animals that are fully representative of the disease syndrome in the affected herd or flock. Where possible:</p><ul><li>collect diagnostic samples from several animals</li><li>collect samples from animals early in the clinical course (not only are the causal organisms usually found in greatest concentration in tissues at this time, but secondary infections, which may mask the underlying cause, are less likely to be present)</li><li>collect specimens from animals that are freshly dead (most viruses and bacteria are quickly inactivated after the death of the host as autolysis of tissues occurs, particularly in hot weather) or slaughter sick animals for the purpose.</li></ul><p>In some cases it may be desirable to deliver live sick animals to the laboratory (e.g. poultry). <strong>However, this must only be done after advice from the government veterinary officer and/or laboratory, who will take into account the microbiological security of such action and the physical security of the animals while being transported</strong>.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore"><a id="case_definitions">Case definitions</a></h5><p>You can develop a working case definition following the history taking process and clinical examination. The benefit of having a case definition is that it helps to define whether there is a single disease or multiple problems occurring at the same time.</p><p>A case definition may need to be flexible to prevent excluding cases that are related, and can be altered over time if more information comes to light. This is helpful in providing clarity in determining the nature of unfolding disease events.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Basic epidemiological analysis</h5><p>A <strong>distribution map</strong>, which shows the location and distribution of the livestock affected on a property (in relation to the location of all the livestock), plus paddocks and water bodies, may help suggest a possible cause of the problem. This may be hand drawn.</p><p>In addition, it is good practice in field investigations for veterinarians to use basic epidemiological measurements to determine fundamental event descriptors such as prevalence, incidence and mortality rates.</p><p><strong>Prevalence</strong> is the proportion of a population affected by a disease at a given point in time. The prevalence is the number of affected animals divided by the total number of animals at risk.</p><p><strong>Incidence</strong> is a measure of new cases of disease in a population within a defined time period. The cumulative incidence is the number of animals developing disease over the period in question divided by the number of non-diseased animals at the start of the period.</p><p><strong>Mortality</strong> is the number of dead animals divided by the total number of animals in the population at the start of the period.</p><p>Other factors may also influence the expression of disease, including species, age, sex, reproductive status or other management activities. Comparing the prevalence, incidence or mortality in particular classes of animals can indicate factors associated with expression of disease.</p><p>It may also be useful to draw a <strong>timeline</strong> which shows the number of cases occurring over time and events considered potentially related to the problem. Similarly, a plotted graph of number of cases over time (an <strong>epidemic curve</strong>) is useful to visualise the timeframe of the outbreak or disease event. The pattern of the graph can indicate whether cases have the appearance of a ‘point source’ problem (such as a single access to a toxin) or a ‘propagating epidemic’ (indicating a possible infectious disease occurrence).</p><h5 data-toc="ignore"><a id="post_mortem_examination">Post-mortem examination</a></h5><p><strong>Undertake post-mortems only where it is safe to do so. You should not conduct post-mortems for sudden death of livestock in the field due to the possibility of anthrax</strong>.</p><p>Post-mortem examinations should be carried out in a systematic way to ensure nothing is missed. This routine approach also leads to the most efficient use of time.</p><p>In conducting post-mortems, personal safety is paramount—both from the risk of exposure to animal pathogens and the physical risks involved with using sharp equipment. Post-mortems are sometimes carried out in less than ideal situations and under time pressures. However, it is essential for veterinarians to ensure their personal safety and follow standard procedures to reduce the risk of accidents.</p><p>There are many detailed guides on post-mortem procedures. In general, it is important for veterinarians to:</p><ul><li>have a standardised procedure that you follow routinely. It is important not to deviate based on initial findings or a narrow differential diagnosis list</li><li>work safely for the benefit of themselves and others nearby</li><li>examine all organs and tissue systems in a systematic way, even if lesions appear to be confined to one system</li><li>record gross lesions in a report to give the reader a clear understanding of the lesions seen. Consider using a waterproof camera to record lesions that can be disinfected following the post-mortem</li><li>collect a comprehensive range of diagnostic specimens for consideration in the differential diagnosis</li><li>maintain and use sharp equipment</li><li>have all equipment available in an organised way</li><li>have a pre-arranged sample collection system (i.e. mark containers clearly (and ideally pre-label them)</li><li>place samples into appropriate collection containers</li><li>have and use a routine to maintain cleanliness</li><li>conduct more than one post-mortem</li><li>where possible, post-mortem freshly dead animals and consider sacrificing sick animals (since only limited information can be obtained from decomposed carcasses)</li><li>dispose of carcasses appropriately.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore"><a id="samples_for_laboratory_diagnosis">Samples for laboratory diagnosis</a></h4><p>In the routine investigation of endemic diseases field diagnosis based on clinical, pathological and epidemiological evidence are adequate on many occasions. However, when faced with an outbreak of an unusual disease, possibly an EAD, it is crucial that an accurate confirmatory laboratory diagnosis is obtained as rapidly as possible. Failure to do so may compromise the success of any attempted eradication campaign.</p><p>Collecting and submitting a variety of samples allows for open-ended testing and increases the likelihood of accurate diagnosis. Multiple fixed tissues and sera allow for non-specific testing, and veterinary laboratories can hold extra samples pending the initial testing results.</p><p>You should contact the veterinary laboratories you use for their specific requirements and guidelines. Some diseases (e.g. bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie) require specific samples. Details of special requirements are provided in the appropriate disease chapter in this guide. Later chapters will describe specific samples to submit by syndrome; however, a general description of samples to collect is shown in <a href="#table_1_3_3">Table 1.3.3</a>.</p><table id="table_1_3_3" summary="The different samples required for base sample set for investigation of a suspected emergency animal disease"><caption>Table 1.3.3 Sampling guide for a base sample set</caption><thead><tr><th>Sample type</th><th>Examples of samples to take</th><th>Storage/transport conditions</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Ante-mortem samples</td><td><p>Blood samples (samples from at least 10 animals are recommended):</p><ul><li>EDTA 10 ml</li><li>Plain 10 ml</li></ul><p>Swab (ensure the swab fully absorbs sample fluid) e.g. oral, nasal, rectal</p></td><td><p>Blood samples:</p><ul><li>mix with anticoagulant and chill</li><li>do not freeze</li><li>draw off serum for prolonged transport (put serum in plain blood tube)</li></ul><p>Sterile swab in PBGS</p></td></tr><tr><td>Fresh tissue<br />(in separate individual sterile containers)</td><td><p>Tissue samples (samples from at least five animals are recommended) from organs relevant to clinical signs/gross necropsy findings, as well as:</p><ul><li>brain (swab, small section)</li><li>liver</li><li>lung</li><li>kidney</li><li>spleen</li></ul></td><td><p>Fresh samples:</p><ul><li>chill or refrigerate</li><li>do not freeze</li></ul></td></tr><tr><td>Fixed samples<br />(pooled in formalin – 10:1 formalin: tissue)</td><td>Tissues from lesions and representative samples from each organ system</td><td><p>Fixed tissues:</p><ul><li>keep at room temperature</li><li>can be pooled</li></ul></td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Labelling of samples</h5><p>Note that:</p><ul><li>each specimen container should be clearly labelled with the property and animal identification, date of collection and the tissue enclosed</li><li>waterproof labels/labelling used should stay attached and writing remain legible if the outside of the containers become wet.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Documentation to accompany samples</h5><p>When you are outside of the infected area complete the relevant state laboratory submission form/specimen advice note. This specimen advice note is included inside the outer packaging (see section on sample packaging).</p><p>The specimen advice note should include:</p><p><strong>Location and contact information</strong></p><ul><li>owner’s name and address of property, with appropriate contact information</li><li>name, address and contact information of the sender.</li></ul><p><strong>Case information</strong></p><ul><li>disease agents suspected and tests requested</li><li>species, breed, sex, age and identity of the animals sampled</li><li>date when samples were collected and submitted</li><li>list and type of samples submitted with transport media used</li><li>case history, including<ul><li>list of animals examined and findings</li><li>clinical signs and their duration</li><li>length of time the sick animals have been on the premise and, if recent arrivals, where they originated from</li><li>date of first case and subsequent cases.</li></ul></li></ul><p><strong>Epidemiological information</strong></p><ul><li>a description of the spread of infection in the herd or flock, for example, the number of sick or dead animals/number of exposed animals</li><li>different species on the property and numbers of each</li><li>type and standard of animal husbandry on the property, including the type of feed available, biosecurity measures and other relevant factors potentially associated with the occurrence of cases</li><li>history of foreign travel by owner or of introduction of animals from other countries or regions</li><li>any medication given to the animals, and when given</li><li>vaccination history describing the type of vaccines used and dates of application</li><li>other observations about the disease, husbandry practices and other disease conditions present.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample packaging</h5><p>Package and transport all biological materials in accordance with local, national and international regulations. The minimum requirements for transporting specimens follow the principle of triple packaging, which consists of three layers—a primary receptacle (such as a blood tube or specimen container), secondary packaging (for example a plastic container), and an outer packaging.</p><p>In addition:</p><ul><li>a primary container is packed into the secondary container on the infected property, along with absorbent material</li><li>the secondary container must have its surface disinfected and be removed from the infected area prior to packaging in the outer transport container</li><li>label the outer packaging with the name, address and 24-hour telephone number of the sender, the delivery address, orientation labels and any other relevant regulatory requirements</li><li>contact government veterinary laboratories regarding supplies of suitable packing containers</li><li>store suitable gel packs (‘cold bricks’) frozen at –20°C, ready for use</li><li>use dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days. Seal the sample containers to ensure that CO2 does not reach the samples, which could affect sample pH</li><li>seek advice from the appropriate government veterinary authority when carcasses or other specimens to be submitted are too large to be packed into a specimen transport container.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of laboratory samples</h5><p>Australia has strict regulations governing the road, rail and air shipment of clinical material and specimens. Specimens that are incorrectly packaged and labelled can be refused for transport or laboratory processing, and may put the safety of those receiving the specimens at unnecessary risk. For example leaking containers, blood in syringes, with or without needles, are unacceptable.</p><p>Veterinarians and clinic staff must ensure that packages containing biological material meet the requirements outlined in the current <a href="https://www.infrastructure.gov.au/transport/australia/dangerous/dg_code_7e.aspx">Australian Code for the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road or Rail</a>. It is recommended that commercial packaging and printed labels be used.</p><p>Consignments of specimens suspected of containing pathogens are considered to be dangerous goods (infectious substances). A person holding a current certification for dangerous goods must pack dangerous goods consignments for air transport. Mark the appropriate shipping name and number for the dangerous goods on the package. In most cases this will be UN 2900 (infectious substances, affecting animals only, in solid or liquid form) or UN 2814 (infectious substances, affecting humans, in solid or liquid form) or air or by post transport.</p><p>In either case, the actual name of the infectious agent (known or suspected) should be added in parentheses. Complete two copies of the shipper’s Declaration/or Dangerous Goods form for transport by air or by post. These must accompany the package, in the plastic envelope for shipping documents, attached on the side of the box.</p><p>The Animal Health Committee has developed protocols for the submission of likely EAD specimens to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness (ACDP). These are contained in the AUSVETPLAN management manual <a href="https://www.animalhealthaustralia.com.au/our-publications/ausvetplan-manuals-and-documents/">Laboratory Preparedness (pdf 284kb)</a>.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore"><a id="follow_up">Follow-up</a></h4><p>An important disease investigation principle is to follow-up with owners to determine if there are any ongoing concerns. Follow-up allows veterinarians to see if the situation has escalated or otherwise changed. You should not only rely on owners keeping you up to date with the clinical progression of the incident. Rather, actively make contact to monitor the situation, as this is a proactive way to ensure that an escalating situation does not go unnoticed. It can be beneficial to routinely schedule follow-up calls to producers after you have made livestock disease visits.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_2" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>2. Guide to investigation of disease syndromes</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="2_1_vesicular">2.1 Vesicular diseases</a></h3><div class="box-information icon-info"><p><strong>The term ‘vesicular diseases’ refers to a group of highly infectious viral diseases of cloven-hooved animals</strong>.</p></div><p>Due to the animal production and international trade ramifications of vesicular diseases, particularly foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), early detection of vesicular diseases is crucial. Vesicular diseases can cause high morbidity, but typically present with very low to no mortality.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>Clinical signs of vesicular diseases are similar. They include:</p><ul><li>excessive salivation</li><li>lameness</li><li>reluctance to move, huddling together</li><li>vesicles and ulcers on the feet, mouth, and teats</li><li>hoof lesions including separation of corium</li><li>pyrexia and depression</li><li>unwillingness to eat.</li></ul><p>In addition, secondary bacterial infections may lead to other clinical signs such as mastitis and reduced milk production in dairy cows.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p>A range of endemic and exotic infectious diseases present with vesicles and ulcerations, as well as several non-infectious diseases. Because of this, in addition to vesicles, you will need to consider other clinical signs present when determining a differential diagnosis list.</p><p>FMD is the most economically important vesicular disease for Australia and it affects multiple species (goats, sheep, cows and pigs). Because FMD is extremely contagious and an outbreak would have a significant economic impact to Australia, we must properly investigate and diagnose all vesicular diseases. <a href="#table_2_1_1">Table 2.1.1</a> presents a list of vesicular diseases and the livestock species affected.</p><table id="table_2_1_1" summary="Indicates which vesicular diseases affected which animal species."><caption>Table 2.1.1 The vesicular diseases (all are exotic to Australia) and species clinically affected</caption><thead><tr><th>Disease</th><th>Cattle</th><th>Goats&nbsp;and&nbsp;sheep</th><th>Deer</th><th>Pigs</th><th>Horses</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td><a href="#section_3_10">Foot-and-mouth disease</a></td><td>Yes</td><td>Yes</td><td>Yes</td><td>Yes</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td>Senecavirus A (Seneca Valley virus) infection</td><td>(antibodies only; no disease to date)</td><td>No</td><td>No</td><td>Yes</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td><a href="#section_3_24">Swine vesicular disease</a></td><td>No</td><td>No</td><td>No</td><td>Yes</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td>Vesicular exanthema of swine (not seen globally since 1956)</td><td>No</td><td>No</td><td>No</td><td>Yes</td><td>No</td></tr><tr><td><a href="#section_3_26">Vesicular stomatitis</a></td><td>Yes</td><td>No</td><td>No</td><td>Yes</td><td>Yes</td></tr></tbody></table><p>A number of other <strong>exotic diseases</strong> have similar clinical signs to viral vesicular diseases, particularly during their more advanced clinical stages. These include:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_5">bluetongue disease</a> (affects cattle, deer, goats and sheep)</li><li><a href="#section_3_17">peste des petits ruminants</a> (affects goats and sheep)</li><li>rinderpest (now recognised as globally eradicated by the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) (affects cattle, goats and sheep).</li></ul><p><strong>Endemic diseases</strong>, which may cause similar clinical signs to viral vesicular diseases include, but are not limited to:</p><ul><li>bovine papular stomatitis (affects cattle)</li><li>foot rot (affects cattle and sheep)</li><li>Glässers disease (<em>Haemophilus parasuis</em>) (affects pigs)</li><li>infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (affects cattle)</li><li>malignant catarrhal fever (only sheep-associated malignant catarrhal fever is endemic) (affects cattle)</li><li>mucosal disease caused by bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD). Only BVD virus 1 is endemic in Australia (affects cattle).</li></ul><p>Non-infectious causes of similar clinical signs to viral vesicular diseases include but are not limited to:</p><ul><li>chemical irritants and scalding (affects cattle, deer, goats, horses, pigs and sheep)</li><li>dermatophilus and other types of mycotic stomatitis (affects cattle, deer, goats, horses, pigs and sheep)</li><li>idiopathic vesicular disease in pigs (affects pigs)</li><li>insect bite hypersensitivity (affects cattle, deer, goats, horses, pigs and sheep)</li><li>lesions of the mouth and feet due to trauma (affects cattle, deer, goats, horses, pigs and sheep)</li><li>lameness due to bad or hard floors (affects cattle, deer, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>phototoxic dermatitis with vesicle formations from contact with the leaves of plants of the family <em>Umbelliferae</em> (parsley, parsnips and celery) (affects cattle, deer, goats, horses, pigs and sheep).</li></ul><p>Some differential diagnoses may be eliminated by <a href="#taking_a_case_history">taking a thorough history</a> including environmental observations (such as possible trauma or exposure to parsnips or celery) and a thorough <a href="#clinical_investigation">clinical examination</a> (such as for chemical burn). Also important is information about the clinical picture of the herd (i.e. are single or multiple animals affected?).</p><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect a case of vesicular disease, report it immediately by phoning the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888</strong>, wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigation and sampling guidelines</h4><p>Undertake a thorough physical examination of sick animals, including taking rectal temperatures. Speaking to the farmer and people who have cared for the animals will help establish the history for these cases. Conduct a post-mortem on any dead animals (but note that the vesicular diseases do not typically cause death). Animals may present with lameness and inappetence.</p><p>Investigate and sample of a range of animals, including at least 10 clinically healthy animals, to help identify new cases and determine the level of morbidity in the herd or flock.</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>Take samples from at least five affected animals in the herd, flock or group. These can be taken from lesions in the mouth or the feet, or at other sites with suitable lesions.</p><p>The best samples for all <strong>vesicular disease exclusions</strong> are:</p><ul><li>vesicular fluid</li><li>epithelium from unruptured vesicles (1–2 cm)</li><li>epithelial tags from freshly ruptured vesicles (1–2 cm)</li><li>nasal, oral and tonsillar swabs</li><li>oropharyngeal fluid, collected with a probang or swabs if unavailable</li><li>serum from affected, recovered and a selection of unaffected animals (minimum 7–10 ml; at least 10 animals per group).</li></ul><p>Epithelium and granulation tissue from healing lesions that is difficult to detach and fibrin covered lesions are generally unsuitable for isolation of virus. If only older lesions are present, include samples from foot lesions as these tend to have higher concentrations of virus for longer periods than do lesions at other sites. To avoid bacterial contamination, you may need to wash animals’ feet and you may rinse epithelial samples from the foot in phosphate buffer before placing in sample vials.</p><p>In addition to samples from oral, foot and teat lesions, you should also collect fresh and formalin-fixed samples from several tissues (lymph nodes, thyroid and adrenal glands, kidney, spleen and heart) from dead animals.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p>The laboratory will be able to test for the presence of all vesicular viruses in samples. Refer to <a href="#table_2_1_2">Table 2.1.2</a>.</p><p>It is important to note that FMD virus is very sensitive to both acid and alkaline conditions and inappropriate buffer conditions can inactivate the virus making virus isolation difficult or impossible. To maximise chances of virus isolation:</p><ul><li>use phosphate buffered saline or virus transport media with a pH of 7.6.</li><li>if a sample is to be submitted after 24 hours or more, glycerol should be added to the phosphate buffered saline</li><li>oropharyngeal fluid collected with a probang should be diluted in an equal volume of phosphate buffered saline pH 7.6, and mixed vigorously for 1 minute.</li></ul><p>Note that collection of samples in these buffers is optimal (for the growth of FMD virus) but not essential for RNA or antigen detection assays.</p><p>Collect:</p><ul><li><strong>serum</strong>, 7–10 ml/animal in plain tubes</li><li><strong>vesicular fluid</strong>, carefully use a syringe and needle to aspirate the vesicular fluid from unruptured vesicles, and place in a sterile container. Alternatively, collect fluid from small vesicles onto a swab and place the swab in 500 μl of buffer, such as phosphate buffered saline or virus transport medium</li><li><strong>fresh tissue</strong>, epithelium, epithelial tags, oral, nasal and tonsillar swabs and oropharyngeal fluid and submit in phosphate buffered saline or virus transport medium, if available</li><li><strong>fixed tissue</strong>, a range of tissues (lymph nodes, thyroid and adrenal glands, kidney, spleen and heart) from dead animals.</li></ul><table id="table_2_1_2" summary="Details of samples to be collected when investigating vesicular disease"><caption>Table 2.1.2 Sample collection for vesicular diseases</caption><thead><tr><th>Collection container</th><th>Sample</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Sterile tube (with viral transport media or phosphate buffered saline if available)</td><td>Vesicle fluid, vesicle epithelium, nasal and oral swabs, oropharyngeal fluid collected with a probang or tonsillar swab</td></tr><tr><td>Plain tube</td><td>Blood for serology</td></tr><tr><td>Fresh and formalin-fixed samples</td><td>Several tissues (lymph nodes, thyroid and adrenal glands, kidney, spleen and heart) collected from dead animals</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4&nbsp;°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20&nbsp;°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin-fixed samples can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_2_2" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="section_2_2">2.2 Sudden death in pigs</a></h3><p>Sudden death in pigs may be associated with a wide range of infectious diseases or non-infectious causes. Some of these infectious diseases are exotic to Australia and need to be excluded from the disease investigation.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>Sudden death can be defined as death occurring with little or no observed clinical signs. In most cases pigs will be found dead, often in good body condition. As such, there is increased importance placed on post-mortem evaluation and diagnostic testing as part of the disease investigation process. In addition, close observation of remaining animals may be useful in attempting to detect peracute clinical signs. Clinical signs (if observed) will depend on the aetiological agent involved and the age of the animals affected.</p><p>The epidemiological picture may also help to determine whether an exotic disease is involved with a sudden death incident. In most cases, an exotic disease will affect multiple animals and spread rapidly throughout the herd.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p><strong>Exotic</strong> diseases that may cause sudden death in pigs include:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_1">African swine fever</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_3">Aujeszky’s disease</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_7">classical swine fever</a> (hog cholera)</li><li><a href="#section_3_10">foot-and-mouth disease</a>.</li></ul><p>Note that while classical swine fever and Aujeszky’s disease are not typically associated with sudden death, the acute form of these diseases may cause sudden death in young piglets. Some strains of FMD virus can also cause peracute disease leading to sudden death in very young piglets.</p><p><strong>Endemic</strong> diseases that may cause sudden death in pigs include:</p><ul><li><em>Actinobacillus suis</em> in piglets</li><li>bacterial endocarditis in piglets, weaners, growers and finishers</li><li>Bungowannah virus in piglets</li><li>colibacillosis (<em>Escherichia coli</em>) in piglets and weaners</li><li>erysipelas (<em>Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae</em>) in growers and finishers</li><li>encephalomyocarditis (Encephalomyocarditis virus) in piglets</li><li>Glässers disease (<em>Haemophilus parasuis</em>) in weaners, growers and finishers</li><li>oedema disease (<em>E. coli</em>) in weaners, growers and finishers</li><li>pleuropneumonia (<em>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae</em>) in weaners, growers and finishers</li><li>streptococcal septicaemia in weaners, growers and finishers.</li></ul><p>Non-infectious causes of sudden death in pigs include:</p><ul><li>electrocution</li><li>endotoxic shock (e.g. from vaccines)</li><li>gastric ulceration</li><li>intestinal torsion</li><li>mulberry heart disease (in weaners)</li><li>overlay (in piglets)</li><li>porcine stress syndrome (in growers and finishers)</li><li>trauma.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect an emergency animal disease, report it immediately by phoning the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888</strong>, wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigation and sampling guidelines</h4><p>Examine live pigs to detect early clinical signs. In cases of sudden death, undertake a thorough post-mortem examination of multiple pigs to narrow the diagnostic pathway and collect appropriate samples for diagnostic testing. Information about the housing environment, stocking rates, production flow and other rearing details can also help narrow the investigation.</p><p>Investigate and sample a range of animals, including at least 10 clinically healthy animals, to help identify new cases and determine the level of morbidity in the herd.</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have serious public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>Take samples from multiple dead pigs (at least five if possible) at post-mortem. Collect blood from at least 10 animals (if possible) that have clinical signs. Euthanise some animals for post-mortem examination and sample collection.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p><a href="#table_2-_2_1">Table 2.2.1</a> details the sample collection required for sudden death in pigs.</p><table id="table_2_2_1" summary="Details of the samples to be collected when there is sudden death in pigs"><caption>Table 2.2.1 Sample collection for sudden death in pigs</caption><thead><tr><th>Collection container</th><th>Collect from live pigs</th><th>Collect from dead pigs</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>EDTA tube</td><td>Blood</td><td>Blood (if possible to collect from recently dead animals)</td></tr><tr><td>Plain tube</td><td>Blood for serology</td><td>–</td></tr><tr><td>Swabs in virus transport medium</td><td>Vesicular lesions (if present); nasal, oral cavity, tonsils</td><td>Vesicular lesions (if present); nasal and oral cavity</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile tube</td><td>Vesicular fluid (if vesicles present); faeces (if enteric disease suspected)</td><td>Vesicular fluid (if vesicles present); faeces (if enteric disease suspected)</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile collection container (no media)</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr><tr><td>10% neutral buffered formalin</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4&nbsp;°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20&nbsp;°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_2_3" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="section_2_3">2.3 Respiratory diseases in pigs</a></h3><p>Respiratory pathogens are an important cause of morbidity, mortality and production losses in intensively reared pig herds. Multiple infectious diseases often occur concurrently or as a complex within a herd (known as the Porcine Respiratory Disease Complex), and diagnostic approaches should take this into consideration. Complex bacterial pneumonia is often the cause of death in cases of a porcine respiratory disease.</p><p>However, diseases such as pneumonia often result from the confluence of multiple host, environmental, management and pathogen factors.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>In many cases, the clinical manifestations of infection and severity of disease is age-dependent (e.g. porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome). General clinical signs associated with respiratory pathogens may include:</p><ul><li>anorexia/weight loss</li><li>coughing and nasal discharge</li><li>cyanosis, particularly the skin on the nose and ears</li><li>pyrexia</li><li>lethargy</li><li>sudden death</li><li>tachypnoea, dyspnoea, respiratory distress (increased respiratory effort/heaves, open mouth breathing).</li></ul><p>Other body systems may be implicated:</p><ul><li>encephalitis (associated with <a href="#section_3_3">Aujeszky’s disease</a> and <a href="#section_3_16">Nipah virus infection</a>)</li><li>lymphadenopathy (associated with porcine circovirus type 2 viruses)</li><li>polyserositis (associated with <em>Haemophilus parasuis</em>)</li><li>reproductive loss (associated with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome)</li><li>seizures and neurological signs associated with meningitis (e.g. <em>Strepococcus suis</em>).</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p>The presence of multiple concurrent pathogens often complicates investigation of porcine respiratory disease. Although clinical and pathology findings may be most consistent with a bacterial aetiology, you should also consider viral and mycoplasmal pathogens. Carefully consider both infectious and non-infectious causes.</p><p><strong>Exotic </strong>diseases that may cause porcine respiratory disease include:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_3">Aujeszky’s disease</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_12">influenza A viruses in pigs</a> (exotic strains)</li><li><a href="#section_3_16">Nipah virus infection</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_19">porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome</a>.</li></ul><p><strong>Endemic</strong> diseases that may cause porcine respiratory disease include:</p><ul><li><em>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae</em></li><li>atrophic rhinitis (<em>Bordatella bronchiseptica</em>)</li><li>inclusion body rhinitis (porcine cytomegalovirus)</li><li>miscellaneous opportunistic bacterial infections (<em>Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella</em></li><li><em>multocida, Streptococcus suis</em>)</li><li>mycoplasmal pneumonia (<em>Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, Mycoplasma hyorhinis</em>)</li><li>porcine circovirus type 2 associated diseases</li><li>influenza A viruses (human-origin strains, subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2).</li></ul><p>A non-infectious contributing factor to the development of porcine respiratory disease complex is poor air quality, such as high levels of dust and ammonia. In addition, pneumonia associated with ingested toxins (e.g. pyrrolizidine alkaloids, paraquat) is an uncommon cause of respiratory disease in pigs.</p><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect an emergency animal disease, report it immediately by phoning the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888</strong>, wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigation and sampling guidelines</h4><p>Undertake a thorough physical examination of sick animals, including taking rectal temperatures. Speaking to the farmer and people who have cared for the animals will help establish the history for these cases. Information concerning housing, environment, stocking rates, production flow and other rearing details can also help narrow the investigation. Conduct a post-mortem on any dead animals.</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have serious public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>Collect samples from multiple animals, particularly when multiple pathogens are suspected. Aim to collect blood from at least 10 animals and other samples from at least five animals.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p><a href="#table_2_3_1">Table 2.3.1</a> details the sample collection required for respiratory diseases in pigs.</p><table id="table_2_3_1" summary="Details of samples to be collected from pigs with respiratory disease"><caption>Table 2.3.1 Sample collection for respiratory diseases in pigs</caption><thead><tr><th>Collection&nbsp;container</th><th>Collect from live pigs</th><th>Collect from dead pigs</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>EDTA tube</td><td>Blood</td><td>Blood (if possible to collect from recently dead animals)</td></tr><tr><td>Plain tube</td><td>Blood for serology</td><td>–</td></tr><tr><td>Swabs in virus transport media</td><td>Vesicular lesions (if present); nasal, oral cavity, tonsils</td><td>Nasal and oral cavity, tonsils, trachea</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile swabs for bacterial culture</td><td>Vesicular fluid (if vesicles present); faeces (if enteric disease suspected)</td><td>Pleural cavity, lung, pericardial fluid, brain</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile collection container (no media)</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, trachea, lymph nodes (bronchial), heart, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr><tr><td>10% neutral buffered formalin</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, trachea, spleen, lymph nodes (bronchial), heart, lung (representative sections of all lobes, any lesions), brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4&nbsp;°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20&nbsp;°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="setion_2_4" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a name="section_2_4">2.4 Neurological diseases in pigs</a></h3><p>A large number of conditions affect the porcine nervous system, and many of these can cause sudden onset or acute outbreaks. The presenting signs of many of these conditions do not allow clinical differentiation, and diagnostic gross changes are infrequently found in the brain and spinal cord. Several emergency animal diseases can cause neurological disease in pigs so careful workup of these conditions is necessary.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>It is difficult to undertake all but the simplest neurological examination of a pig, and few diseases of the nervous system have localising signs. Clinical signs of neurological disorders in pigs include:</p><ul><li>ataxia</li><li>blindness</li><li>circling</li><li>convulsions</li><li>hyperaesthesia</li><li>nystagmus</li><li>paralysis/paresis</li><li>recumbency</li><li>tremor.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p>Consider other clinical signs present when determining a differential diagnosis as many emergency animal diseases of pigs cause neurological disease.</p><p><strong>Exotic</strong> diseases that may cause neurological disorders in pigs include:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_2">African swine fever</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_3">Aujeszky’s disease</a></li><li>blue eye disease (paramyxovirus)</li><li><a href="#section_3_7">classical swine fever</a> (hog cholera)</li><li>eastern equine encephalomyelitis</li><li>enteroviral encephalomyelitis</li><li><a href="#section_3_13">Japanese encephalitis</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_19">porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome</a></li><li><a href="##section_3_20">rabies</a></li><li>Teschen/Talfan disease.</li></ul><p><strong>Endemic</strong> diseases that may cause neurological disorders in pigs include but are not limited to:</p><ul><li>congenital tremors (exact cause yet to be determined)</li><li>encephalomyocarditis virus (EMC)</li><li>enteroviral encephalomyelitis</li><li>Glässer’s disease (<em>Haemophilus parasuis</em>)</li><li>haemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV)</li><li>Menangle virus</li><li>oedema disease</li><li>streptococcal meningitis</li><li>tetanus.</li></ul><p>Non-infectious causes of neurological disorders in pigs include:</p><ul><li>congenital defects</li><li>hypoglycaemia</li><li>iron toxicity</li><li>middle ear infection</li><li>nutritional deficiencies (e.g. pantothenic acid)</li><li>poisons such as arsenic, mercury, monensin and organophosphorus compounds</li><li>porcine stress syndrome</li><li>water deprivation or salt poisoning.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect an emergency animal disease, report it immediately by phoning the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888</strong>, wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigation and sampling guidelines</h4><p>Undertake a thorough physical examination of sick animals. Speak to the farmer and people who have cared for the animals to establish the case history. Information about housing, environment, stocking rates, production flow and other rearing factors could be particularly useful. Conduct a post-mortem on any dead animals.</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have serious public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>Take samples from several pigs. Aim to collect blood samples from at least 10 pigs and other samples from at least five pigs. Investigate and sample a range of animals, including clinically healthy or suspicious animals.</p><p>Take a complete set of tissue samples for histopathology from recently deceased or euthanased untreated animals.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p><a href="table_2_4_1">Table 2.4.1</a> details the sample collection required for neurological pigs.</p><table id="table_2_4_1" summary="Details of samples to be collected from pigs with neurological disease"><caption>Table 2.4.1 Samples to collect from neurological pigs</caption><thead><tr><th>Collection&nbsp;container</th><th>Collect from live pigs</th><th>Collect from dead pigs</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>EDTA tube</td><td>Blood</td><td>Blood (if possible to collect from recently dead animals)</td></tr><tr><td>Plain tube</td><td>Blood for serology</td><td>–</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile collection container (no media)</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, spinal cord, kidney, ileum</td></tr><tr><td>10% neutral buffered formalin</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, spinal cord, kidney, ileum</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4&nbsp;°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20&nbsp;°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_2_5" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="section_2_5">2.5 Diarrhoea in pigs</a></h3><p>Pigs of all ages are susceptible to enteric diseases, and diarrhoea is a clinical sign common to nearly all enteric disorders. Of all the diseases in the sucking piglet, diarrhoea is the most common and probably the most important. In some outbreaks it is responsible for high morbidity and mortality. In a well-run herd there should be less than 3 per cent of litters at any one time requiring treatment and piglet mortality from diarrhoea should be less than 0.5 per cent.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>Diarrhoea in pigs may occur with little or no other signs or it may be a striking clinical sign of a specific disease. In addition to diarrhoea, clinical signs can include:</p><ul><li>pyrexia (rectal temperature recorded at &gt;39.5°C)</li><li>lethargy</li><li>reduced food intake</li><li>reluctance to move, huddle together</li><li>sunken eyes</li><li>sudden death in young pigs</li><li>wetness and discoloration of skin around the anus and tail.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p>Diarrhoea in a herd may be due to a single agent but concurrent infections are common and less than ideal environmental conditions can exacerbate these.</p><p><strong>Exotic</strong> diseases that may cause diarrhoea in pigs include:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_2">African swine fever</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_7">classical swine fever</a> (hog cholera)</li><li><a href="#section_3_18">porcine epidemic diarrhoea</a></li><li>post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome</li><li><a href="#section_3_25">transmissible gastroenteritis</a>.</li></ul><p><strong>Endemic </strong>diseases that may cause diarrhoea in pigs include but are not limited to:</p><ul><li>clostridium</li><li>coccidiosis</li><li>colibacillosis</li><li>internal parasites</li><li>porcine circovirus 2 infection</li><li>proliferative enteropathy (ileitis)</li><li>rotavirus infection</li><li>salmonellosis</li><li>swine dysentery</li><li>yersiniosis.</li></ul><p>Non-infectious causes of diarrhoea in pigs include:</p><ul><li>copper poisoning</li><li>fluoride toxicity</li><li>fungal/toxic mould poisoning</li><li>iron toxicity in piglets</li><li>lead poisoning</li><li>mercury toxicity</li><li>organochlorine toxicity</li><li>organophosphate toxicity</li><li>overfeeding</li><li>pantothenic acid deficiency</li><li>paraquat poisoning</li><li>phosphorus toxicity</li><li>salt poisoning</li><li>zinc deficiency.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect an emergency animal disease, report it immediately by phoning the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888</strong>, wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore"><a id="investigation_and_sampling_guidelines">Investigation and sampling guidelines</a></h4><p>A thorough physical examination of sick animals, including taking rectal temperatures, is advised. Speaking to the farmer and people who have cared for the animals will help establish the history for these cases. Conduct post-mortems on dead animals.</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have serious public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>Take samples from several pigs. Aim to collect blood samples from at least 10 pigs and other samples from at least five pigs. Investigate and sample a range of animals, including clinically healthy or suspicious animals.</p><p>Take a complete set of tissue samples for histopathology from recently deceased or euthanased untreated animals.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p><a href="#table_2_5_1">Table 2.5.1</a> details the sample collection required for pigs with diarrhoea.</p><table id="table_2_5_1" summary="Details of samples to be collected from pigs with diarrhoea"><caption>Table 2.5.1 Samples to collect for pigs with diarrhoea</caption><thead><tr><th>Collection container</th><th>Collect from live pigs</th><th>Collect from dead pigs</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>EDTA tube</td><td>Blood</td><td>Blood (if possible to collect from recently dead animals)</td></tr><tr><td>Plain tube</td><td>Blood for serology</td><td>–</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile tube</td><td>Faeces</td><td>Faeces</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile collection container (no media)</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr><tr><td>10% neutral buffered formalin</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_2_6" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="section_2_6">2.6 Acute lameness in ruminants and pigs</a></h3><p>Acute lameness is a condition with a wide variety of potential causes which can be accompanied by many other clinical signs. It is important to differentiate between lameness and neurological weakness, or ataxia, since the main differential diagnoses of each vary widely. Due to the significance of some of the infectious causes, in particular the vesicular diseases, it is essential for them to be ruled out early.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>Acute lameness conditions can manifest in numerous different ways. Clinical signs that may be evident include:</p><ul><li>abnormal posture and/or conformation</li><li>abnormal limb position</li><li>abrasions, lacerations, puncture wounds</li><li>areas of swelling, heat, erythema, pain, haemorrhage, ecchymosis</li><li>drop in milk production</li><li>drop in conception rates</li><li>hoof lesions including, but not limited to, interdigital dermatitis, ulcers, abscesses, vesicles, cracks</li><li>isolation from the herd</li><li>increased time in sternal and/or lateral recumbency</li><li>odour of the hoof</li><li>reluctance to move</li><li>swollen joints</li><li>sudden onset of mild to severe abnormal gait (affecting one or more limbs)</li><li>weight loss and/or dehydration.</li></ul><p>If acute lameness is secondary to a systemic condition, signs that may be evident include (but are not limited to):</p><ul><li>diarrhoea</li><li>drooling</li><li>generalised lesions present elsewhere on the body</li><li>pyrexia</li><li>systemic bacterial infections including acidosis, mastitis and metritis.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p>Acute lameness is associated with a range of infectious (both endemic and exotic) and non-infectious conditions. The systems most often associated with acute lameness are the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. In addition to acute lameness, consider other clinical signs when determining a differential diagnosis list.</p><p><strong>Exotic</strong> diseases that may cause lameness in pigs and/or ruminants are:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_5">bluetongue disease</a> (affects cattle, deer, goats and sheep)</li><li><a href="section_3_10">foot-and-mouth disease</a> (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li><a href="section_3_23">goat pox</a> (affects goats)</li><li><a href="section_3_14">lumpy skin disease</a> ( affects cattle)</li><li>Senecavirus A (Seneca Valley virus) infection (affects pigs</li><li><a href="#section_3_23">sheep pox</a> (affects sheep)</li><li><a href="section_3_24">swine vesicular disease</a> (affects pigs)</li><li>vesicular exanthema of swine (not seen since 1956) (affects pigs)</li><li><a href="section_3_26">vesicular stomatitis</a> (affects cattle and pigs).</li></ul><p><strong>Endemic</strong> diseases that may cause lameness in pigs and/or ruminants include but are not limited to:</p><ul><li>bacterial infections causing acute arthritis, such as <em>Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae</em>, <em>Haemophilus parasuis</em>, <em>Streptococcus</em> spp, <em>Actinobacillus suis</em>, <em>Mycoplasma hyosynoviae</em>, <em>Mycoplasma hyorhinis</em>, <em>Arcanobacterium pyogenes</em>, <em>Chlamydia psittaci</em>, <em>Streptococcus suis</em> (affects pigs)</li><li>botulism (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>bovine cysticercosis (beef measles) (affects cattle)</li><li>bovine ephemeral fever(affects cattle)</li><li>bovine papular stomatitis(affects cattle)</li><li><em>Brucella suis</em> (affects pigs)</li><li>caprine arthritis encephalitis (affects goats)</li><li>clostridial myositis/blackleg (<em>Clostridium chauvoei</em>) (affects cattle and sheep)</li><li>contagious pustular dermatitis (orf) (affects sheep)</li><li>digital dermatitis (affects cattle and sheep)</li><li>flavivirus infection (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>footrot (affects cattle and sheep)</li><li>Glässers disease (<em>Haemophilus parasuis</em>) (affects pigs)</li><li>malignant catarrhal fever (affects cattle)</li><li>osteomyelitis (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>tetanus (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep).</li></ul><p>Non-infectious causes of lameness in pigs and/or ruminants include:</p><ul><li>bad/hard floors (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>degenerative causes—degenerative joint disease, arthritis, osteochondrosis, cervical spondylopathy (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>inflammatory causes—laminitis, septic arthritis (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>nutritional causes—white muscle disease (selenium deficiency), acidosis (laminitis), vitamin and mineral excesses and deficiencies leading to metabolic bone disease which predisposes fractures (osteomalacia, osteoporosis). Deficiency in vitamin D, biotin, manganese or zinc, as well as mineral excesses, may all lead to metabolic bone disease (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>overgrown claws (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep)</li><li>traumatic causes—hoof lesions (such as cracks, erosions, ulcers, abscesses), fractures, luxations and subluxations, nerve damage due to trauma or toxicity, soft tissue injuries (affects cattle, goats, pigs and sheep).</li></ul><p>Some of the differential diagnoses may be eliminated by taking a good history (e.g. possible trauma, nutrition) and by undertaking a thorough clinical examination. Information about the clinical picture in the herd (i.e. single or multiple animals affected) is also important.</p><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect an emergency animal disease, report it immediately by phoning <strong>the Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888,</strong> wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><p>Bluetongue, malignant catarrhal fever, <em>Brucella suis</em>, virulent footrot and the vesicular diseases are all notifiable diseases in Australia.</p><p>If you suspect the presence of any of these diseases in any livestock you are required to report it to your relevant state department. Virulent footrot must be reported within 48 hours.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigation and sampling guidelines</h4><p>Undertake a thorough physical examination of sick animals, including taking rectal temperatures, as many conditions present as acute lameness. Speaking to the farmer and people who have cared for the animals will help establish the history for these cases. Conduct a post-mortem on any dead animals (but note that lameness does not typically cause death).</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>You will only need samples from animals with acute lameness if you suspect infectious, inflammatory or nutritional causes. Physical examination alone will generally diagnose traumatic causes (such as a fracture or sole abscess). Sample collection depends on the clinical signs present and your physical examination findings.<br>Take samples from several affected animals in the herd, flock or group. Aim for blood samples from at least 10 animals and other samples from at least five animals.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p>Carefully aspirate the vesicular fluid from unruptured vesicles by syringe and needle, and place in a sterile container. Alternatively, collect fluid from small vesicles on a swab and place the swab in 500 μl of buffer, such as phosphate buffered saline or virus transport medium.</p><p>Submit epithelium, epithelial tags, oral, nasal and tonsillar swabs, and oropharyngeal fluid in phosphate buffered saline or virus transport medium, if available. <a href="#table_2_6_1">Table 2.6.1</a> details the samples to collect for acute lameness in pigs and ruminants.</p><table id="table_2_6_1" summary="Details of samples to be collected from pigs and ruminants with lameness"><caption>Table 2.6.1 Samples to collect for acute lameness in pigs and ruminants</caption><thead><tr><th>Additional clinical signs</th><th>Sample</th><th>Collection&nbsp;container</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>Vesicles</td><td>Vesicle fluid, vesicle epithelium, nasal and oral swabs, oropharyngeal fluid collected with a probang or tonsillar swab<br>blood for serology</td><td>Sterile tube (with viral transport medium or phosphate buffered saline if available)<br>plain tube</td></tr><tr><td>Pyrexia, acidosis, mastitis, metritis, generalised lesions, drooling, diarrhoea</td><td>Blood for serology<br>whole blood</td><td>Plain tube<br>EDTA tube</td></tr><tr><td>Lesions (non-vesicular)</td><td>Tissue material/epithelium</td><td>Swab or scrape using scalpel<br>if infectious aetiology is included in the differential diagnosis, use viral transport media</td></tr><tr><td>Joint effusion, localised swelling, or effusion</td><td>Fluid aspirate from affected joint or area<br>paired serology</td><td>Sterile container<br>plain tube</td></tr><tr><td>Interdigital dermatitis</td><td>Epithelium from affected skin or advancing underrun lesions</td><td>2–3 mm, modified Stuart transport medium</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4&nbsp;°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20&nbsp;°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_2_7" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3><a id="section_2_7">2.7 Reproductive problems in pigs</a></h3><p>Viral infections are the most common infectious cause of reproductive problems in pigs. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome currently accounts for nearly 60 per cent of infectious abortions in the United States. Infection of the foetus is common, although maternal illness can be a primary or contributing cause of abortion with a number of viruses.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h4><p>Reproductive problems in pigs can present in many different ways, but can include:</p><ul><li>abortions</li><li>congenital abnormalities</li><li>embryonic death</li><li>embryonic death and resorption</li><li>foetal malformations</li><li>foetal mummification</li><li>increased neonatal mortality</li><li>poor conception rates</li><li>small litters and decreased litter size</li><li>stillbirths</li><li>weak pigs.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Potential causes</h4><p><strong>Exotic diseases</strong> that may cause reproductive problems in pigs include:</p><ul><li><a href="#section_3_3">Aujeszky’s disease</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_7">classical swine fever</a> (hog cholera)</li><li><a href="#section_3_12">influenza A viruses in pigs</a> (exotic strains)</li><li><a href="#section_3_13">Japanese encephalitis</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_16">Nipah virus infection</a></li><li><a href="#section_3_19">porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome</a>.</li></ul><p><strong>Endemic</strong> diseases that may cause reproductive problems in pigs include:</p><ul><li>bovine viral diarrhoea (BVD) or border disease</li><li><em>Brucella suis</em></li><li>chlamydiosis</li><li>encephalomyocarditis virus infection</li><li>influenza A viruses in pigs (human-origin strains, subtypes H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2)</li><li>Menangle virus infection</li><li>porcine parvovirus infection</li><li>porcine cytomegalovirus infection</li><li>porcine rubulavirus (blue-eye disease)</li><li>Teschen/Talfan disease.</li></ul><p>Non-infectious causes of reproductive problems in pigs include:</p><ul><li>carbon monoxide poisoning</li><li>poor management</li><li>poor nutrition</li><li>zearalenone poisoning.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>If you suspect an emergency animal disease, report it immediately by phoning the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800&nbsp;675&nbsp;888</strong>, wherever you are in Australia. Alternatively, contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Investigation and sampling guidelines</h4><p>Conduct a thorough physical examination of sick animals (including taking rectal temperatures). Speak to the farmer and people who have cared for the animals to establish the history for these cases. Consider conducting post-mortems on any available dead animals.</p><p>Some differential diagnoses may be zoonotic and have serious public health implications. Take extra precautions investigating such diseases, including using appropriate personal protective equipment, to prevent infecting personnel by ingesting, inhaling infected aerosols, or contaminating mucous membranes or abraded skin.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h5><p>Since most infectious abortions are the result of foetal infections that occur more than 14 days after the sow became infected, sows may have antibodies at the time of the abortion. However, seroconversion in a sow aborting due to acute illness will not yet have occurred at the time of abortion.</p><p>Collect samples from several pigs (at least 10 animals for blood samples and at least five animals for other samples). Investigating and sampling a range of animals, including clinically healthy animals, can assist to identify new cases and determine the level of morbidity in the herd.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p>Table 2.7.1 details the sample collection required for pigs with reproductive problems.</p><table id="table_2_7_1" summary="Details of samples to be collected from pigs with reproductive problems"><caption>Table 2.7.1 Samples to be collected from pigs with reproductive problems</caption><thead><tr><th>Collection&nbsp;container</th><th>Collect from live pigs</th><th>Collect from dead pigs</th></tr></thead><tbody><tr><td>EDTA tube</td><td>Blood</td><td>Blood (if possible to collect from recently dead animals)</td></tr><tr><td>Plain tube</td><td>Blood for serology</td><td>–</td></tr><tr><td>Swabs in virus transport media</td><td>Nasal and oral cavity, tonsils</td><td>Nasal and oral cavity, tonsils, trachea</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile swabs for bacterial culture</td><td>–</td><td>Abdominal cavity, uterus peritoneal fluid</td></tr><tr><td>Sterile collection container (no media)</td><td>–</td><td>Foetus, tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr><tr><td>10% neutral buffered formalin</td><td>–</td><td>Tonsil, spleen, lymph nodes, lung, brain, kidney, ileum</td></tr></tbody></table><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples at either 4&nbsp;°C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20&nbsp;°C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_3" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div> <h2>3. Emergency animal diseases</h2> </div> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>3.1 African horse sickness</h3><div class="box-2"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Fast facts</h4><p>African horse sickness (AHS) is an exotic arthropod-borne viral disease of <em>Equidae</em> transmitted by certain species of <em>Culicoides</em>.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Organism</h5><p>AHS virus (AHSV):</p><ul><li>has nine different serotypes</li><li>multiplies in regional lymph nodes and is followed by primary viraemia, with subsequent dissemination to target organs.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Susceptible species</h5><p>AHS affects:</p><ul><li>all species of <em>Equidae</em> (although not all show clinical signs)</li><li>dogs and camels (dead-end hosts).</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Economic impact</h5><p>There is potential for significant economic loss associated with high mortality in horses, as well as restrictions on animal movements and international trade.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Epidemiology</h5><p>AHS:</p><ul><li>distribution is determined by the presence of competent vectors</li><li>morbidity depends on species, previous immunity and the form of disease</li><li>can cause mortalities, with horses particularly susceptible (up to 95 per cent).</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transmission</h5><p>Transmission occurs primarily through <em>Culicoides</em> vectors.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h5><p>The disease may present as a peracute (pulmonary) form, subacute oedematous (cardiac) form, and acute mixed form or as horse sickness fever. Clinical signs may include:</p><ul><li>pyrexia</li><li>laboured breathing and coughing</li><li>pulmonary oedema</li><li>oedema of the head, conjunctiva, neck, brisket, ventral thorax and abdomen</li><li>death (which is common and can occur suddenly).</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Post-mortem</h5><p>Gross lesions vary depending on the form of the disease, and lesions are not pathognomonic. These may be found:</p><ul><li>subpleural and interlobular oedema</li><li>subcutaneous and intermuscular connective tissue oedema.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples</h5><p>Collect:</p><ul><li>blood samples (EDTA and plain tubes)</li><li>lymph nodes (especially mesenteric and bronchial), lungs, spleen from dead horses.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Actions to take</h5><p>If you suspect a case of AHS:</p><ul><li>call the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800 675 888</strong> immediately or contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory</li><li>isolate suspected cases and implement biocontainment protocols (including movement controls and protection of animals from vectors) until advised by government veterinary authorities.</li></ul></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Introduction</h4><p>African horse sickness (AHS) is an arthropod-borne infectious (but non-contagious) viral disease affecting all species of <em>Equidae</em>.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Disease agent and susceptible species</h5><p>African horse sickness virus (AHSV):</p><ul><li>is a double-stranded RNA virus belonging to the genus <em>Orbivirus</em> and family <em>Reoviridae</em></li><li>has nine different serotypes and some serotypes are cross protective</li><li>mainly affects equids, with horses, mules, donkeys and zebras the primary hosts</li><li>causes the most serious infections in horses (mortality up to 95 per cent)</li><li>is also known to affect dogs, usually (but not exclusively) following ingestion of virus-infected meat. However, dogs are considered dead-end hosts</li><li>is thought to be maintained in the environment in most regions of Africa by zebras which are often subclinically infected natural reservoir hosts</li><li>antibodies have been reported in camels and African elephants but these species are not considered significant in the epidemiology.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Distribution</h5><p>AHS:</p><ul><li>geographical distribution and seasonal occurrence are dependent on competent vectors,</li><li>and studying the dynamics and behaviour of <em>Culicoides</em> spp. is therefore essential to understanding the disease</li><li>appears to be seasonal in endemic areas, where it is preceded by seasons of heavy rain alternating with hot and dry climatic conditions</li><li>occurs in eastern and southern Africa (all serotypes of AHSV)</li><li>virus serotypes 2, 4 and 9 have been found in North and West Africa, from where they occasionally spread into countries surrounding the Mediterranean.</li></ul><p>For the latest information on the distribution of AHS, refer to the WAHIS information database website of the <a href="http://www.oie.int">World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)</a>.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Occurrences in Australia</h5><p>None reported.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Epidemiology</h4><h5 data-toc="ignore">Modes of transmission</h5><p>AHS is not contagious and does not spread by direct contact between horses.<br />Transmission occurs via:</p><ul><li><strong>vectors</strong>, during blood-feeding by <em>Culicoides</em> species—<em>Culicoides imicola</em> is the principal vector in Africa but is not present in Australia. However, other Australian <em>Culicoides</em> species could be involved. The virus has also been isolated from <em>Rhipicephalus sanguineus</em> (a dog tick) and <em>Hyalomma dromedarii</em> (a camel tick) and has been experimentally transmitted by mosquitoes, including <em>Aedes aegypti</em> and <em>Culex pyriens</em>, both of which are present in Australia.</li><li><strong>wind</strong>, which was implicated in the dispersal of infected <em>Culicoides</em> in some epidemics</li><li><strong>mechanical transmission</strong> by other biting flies, but these are unlikely to play a significant role</li><li><strong>parenteral </strong>injection of infectious blood.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Disease dynamics</h5><p>Following ingestion by a competent female <em>Culicoides</em> vector, the virus replicates in the insect gut then translocates and replicates in the salivary glands before infection of the next mammalian host. Following infection of a mammalian host:</p><ul><li>multiplication of AHSV occurs in regional lymph node and is followed by primary viraemia, with subsequent dissemination to endothelial cells of target organs</li><li>the incubation period lasts 2–10 days, depending on viral load, viral virulence and host factors</li><li>the viraemic phase typically lasts only 2–8 days (for horses) but reservoir mammalian host species (such as zebra) have a longer infectious period</li><li>lifelong immunity following recovery is rare as different serotypes are not necessarily cross-protective</li><li>animals that survive infection do not become carriers of the virus</li><li>morbidity and mortality can be as low as 30 per cent and 10 per cent respectively in endemic areas</li><li>high morbidity and high case mortality (of up to 100 per cent) may occur in naïve horses.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Persistence of the agent</h5><p>AHSV:</p><ul><li>is inactivated in the laboratory with formalin, Virkon® S or radiation</li><li>is destroyed at a pH less than 6, or pH 12 or greater. Acidic disinfectants such as acetic or citric acid have been recommended for decontamination when warranted. Alkaline disinfectants such as sodium hypochlorite are also recommended</li><li>can survive in frozen meat, but is inactivated at temperatures greater than 60 °C</li><li>is rapidly destroyed in carcasses that have undergone rigor mortis due to pH fluctuations.</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Diagnosis and pathology</h4><h5 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h5><p>The disease may present as a peracute (pulmonary) form, subacute oedematous (cardiac) form, an acute mixed form, or as horse sickness fever.<br />Signs of the <strong>peracute pulmonary form</strong> (‘Dunkop’) include:</p><ul><li>acute pyrexia, followed within a day or two by the sudden onset of severe respiratory distress</li><li>short incubation period, usually 3–4 days</li><li>tachypnoea, forced expiration, profuse sweating, spasmodic coughing and a frothy serofibrinous nasal exudate</li><li>forelegs spread apart stance, extended head and dilated nostrils dyspnoea, which usually progresses rapidly and causes death within a few hours after respiratory signs appear</li><li>pyrexia which subsides gradually while the breathing remains laboured for several days (in recovering animals).</li></ul><p>Signs of the <strong>subacute oedematous cardiac form</strong> (‘Dikkop’) include:</p><ul><li>a more protracted and milder incubation than the pulmonary form</li><li>pyrexia lasting less than a week</li><li>oedematous swellings appear in the supraorbital fossae and eyelids, spreading to involve the face, tongue, intermandibular space, laryngeal region, and sometimes the neck, shoulders and chest</li><li>absence of oedema of the ventral side and lower legs</li><li>severe depression, colic, petechiae or ecchymoses on the ventral surface of the tongue, and petechiae in the conjunctivae (all are usually seen in the terminal stages of the disease)</li><li>death from cardiac failure (which often occurs within 1 week of the onset of pyrexic reaction).</li></ul><p>The <strong>acute mixed form</strong> is most commonly seen in outbreak cases, where the disease may cause mortality of up to 80 per cent. Signs include:</p><ul><li>a mix of clinical signs from the pulmonary and cardiac forms of the disease</li><li>pyrexia</li><li>mild pulmonary or subclinical cardiac disease followed by oedema, cardiac failure or respiratory failure</li><li>death, usually occurring 3–6 days after the onset of pyrexic reaction.</li></ul><p>A combination of pathologies (often not clinically apparent) are usually found at post-mortem.<br /><strong>Horse sickness fever</strong> is:</p><ul><li>the mildest form of the disease</li><li>frequently not clinically diagnosed as mild pyrexia in animals may be subclinical</li><li>usually observed in donkeys, reservoir species (zebras) and partially immune horses infected with heterologous serotypes of the virus.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Pathology</h5><p>Gross lesions are quite variable and depend on the form of the disease. In the respiratory forms of the disease, the followintg may be found:</p><ul><li>interlobular oedema of the lungs</li><li>hydropericardium, pleural effusion</li><li>oedema of the thoracic lymph nodes</li><li>petechial haemorrhages of the pericardium.</li></ul><p>In the cardiac forms of the disease, the following may be found:</p><ul><li>subcutaneous and intramuscular gelatinous oedema</li><li>epicardial and endocardial ecchymosis, myocarditis</li><li>haemorrhagic gastritis.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Differential diagnosis</h5><p>Consider in the differential diagnosis:</p><ul><li>exotic diseases<ul><li>dourine</li><li>equine encephalosis</li><li>equine piroplasmosis</li><li>equine viral arteritis (avirulent strains of the virus circulate in Australia)</li><li><a href="#_CHAPTER_3.16:_Nipah">Nipah virus infection</a></li><li>surra.</li></ul></li><li>endemic diseases<ul><li>anthrax</li><li>equine infectious anaemia</li><li><a href="#_CHAPTER_3.11:_Hendra">Hendra virus infection</a></li><li>purpura haemorrhagica (a complication of strangles).</li></ul></li><li>non-infectious causes<ul><li>acute poisoning (plant or chemical)</li><li>heat stress.</li></ul></li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h4><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p>Collect these samples from clinically affected animals:</p><ul><li><strong>serum</strong>, preferably paired sera</li><li><strong>EDTA blood</strong> from live animals (at least 10 if possible), preferably at early pyrexic stages (7–10 ml per animal)</li><li><strong>fresh tissue</strong> from lymph nodes (especially the mesenteric and bronchial nodes), lungs, spleen.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples either at 4 °C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20 °C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Diagnostic tests</h5><p>For AHS diagnosis:</p><ul><li>serological tests available include complement fixation test (CFT), competitive blocking ELISA (which is serogroup specific based on VP7) and viral neutralisation</li><li>nucleic acid detection includes real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR)</li><li>viral isolates can be detected in blood during the early pyrexic stage.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>AHS is an OIE-listed disease and Australia has an international obligation to report cases. </p><p>If you suspect AHS, report it immediately. Call the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800 675 888</strong>. You will be directed to your state or territory government.</p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Biocontainment and personal protective equipment</h4><p>There are no public health implications for AHS, but you should implement biocontainment protocols until advised by government veterinary authorities. This includes isolating suspected cases (and protecting from vectors, if possible) and using and appropriately disposing of personal protective equipment such as gloves, coveralls and rubber boots (or disposable boots). You need to thoroughly disinfect and decontaminate clothing, vehicle and equipment before leaving the property.</p><div class="columns"><figure><div><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media align-center"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/african-horse-sickness-1-ead-guide_1000px.jpg" width="1000" height="667" alt="Figure 3.1.1" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 3.1.1 Abundant froth draining from the nostrils reflects severe pulmonary oedema. Image: PIADC and CFSPH.</figcaption></figure></div></figure><figure><div><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media align-center"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/african-horse-sickness-2-ead-guide_1000px.jpg" width="1000" height="667" alt="Figure 3.1.2" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 3.1.2 Severe interlobular oedema of the lungs with petechiae on the pulmonary pleura and the splenic capsule. Image: PIADC and CFSPH.</figcaption></figure></div></figure></div><div class="box-3"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Further information</h4><p>Carpenter S., Mellor PS., Fall AG., Garros C., Venter GJ. (2017) African Horse Sickness Virus: History, Transmission, and Current Status. Annu Rev Entomol. 62:343-58.</p><p>Center for Food Security &amp; Public Health (2015). <a href="http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/african_horse_sickness.pdf">African Horse Sickness</a>. Iowa: Iowa State University.</p><p>Robin M., Page P., Archer D., Baylis M. (2016) <a href="https://doi.org/10.1111/evj.12600">African horse sickness: The potential for an outbreak in disease-free regions and current disease control and elimination techniques</a>. Equine Vet J. 48(5):659-69.</p><p>Scacchia M, Molini U, Marruchella G, Maseke A, Bortone G, Cosseddu GM, Monacoo F, Savini G, Pini A. (2015) <a href="http://www.izs.it/vet_italiana/2015/51_2/123.htm">African horse sickness outbreaks in Namibia from 2006 to 2013: clinical, pathological and molecular findings</a>. Veterinaria Italiana. 51(2):123-30.</p></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="section_3_2" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><h3>3.2 African swine fever</h3><div class="box-2"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Fast facts</h4><p>African swine fever (ASF) is an exotic highly contagious viral disease of swine clinically indistinguishable from classical swine fever.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Organism</h5><p>ASF virus:</p><ul><li>replicates in <em>Ornithodoros</em> ticks</li><li>is found in all tissues and body fluids</li><li>can survive &gt;30 days in pig pens and &gt;140 days in some pork products</li><li>strains vary greatly in virulence.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Susceptible species</h5><p>Only pigs and other suid species are susceptible.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Economic impact</h5><p>There is potential for significant economic loss associated with high mortality and morbidity in pigs, as well as restrictions on animal movements and international trade.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Epidemiology</h5><p>ASF:</p><ul><li>may cause morbidity approaching 100 per cent in naïve herds</li><li>mortality varies with strain virulence and ranges from 0–100 per cent</li><li>may be asymptomatic in wild pigs</li><li>incubation usually lasts 4–20 days.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transmission</h5><p>Transmission occurs via:</p><ul><li>direct contact, usually oronasal</li><li>ingestion of contaminated swill</li><li>contact with infected carcasses</li><li>indirectly by breeding and fomites</li><li>insect vectors including <em>Orthinodoros</em> ticks (biological) and stable flies (mechanical).</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h5><p>ASF clinical signs:</p><ul><li>vary according to the disease form (peracute, acute, subacute or chronic) as influenced by the virus strain, route and dose of infection</li><li>include marked pyrexia, reduced food intake, erythema, cyanosis, recumbency, diarrhoea, abortion and death</li><li>in the chronic form, include transient recurring pyrexia, stunting, emaciation, multi-focal erythema, raised or necrotic areas, coughing and painless joint swelling.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Post-mortem</h5><p>The most common lesions are:</p><ul><li>haemorrhagic spleen (enlarged, friable, dark red or black)</li><li>haemorrhagic lymph nodes, kidney and heart</li><li>focal skin necrosis</li><li>fibrinous pericarditis</li><li>generalised lymphadenopathy</li><li>swollen joints</li><li>consolidated lobules in lung.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Samples</h5><p>Also refer to the <a href="#investigation_and_sampling_guidelines">detailed section</a> on sampling for sudden death in pigs.<br />Collect:</p><ul><li>blood (EDTA and plain tubes) from living animals</li><li>fresh tissue from spleen, lymph nodes, kidney, lung and ileum on post-mortem.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Actions to take</h5><p>If you suspect a case of ASF:</p><ul><li>call the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800 675 888</strong> immediately or contact a government veterinarian in your state or territory</li><li>isolate suspected cases and implement biocontainment protocols (including farm movement controls) until advised by government veterinary authorities.</li></ul></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Introduction</h4><p>African swine fever (ASF) is a highly contagious disease of pigs. It is clinically indistinguishable from classical swine fever (CSF), and similar lesions seen at post-mortem examination. ASF and CSF can only be distinguished by laboratory testing.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Disease agent and susceptible species</h5><ul><li>ASF virus:</li><li>is an enveloped DNA virus, genus <em>Asfivirus</em>, family <em>Asfarviridae</em></li><li>replicates in <em>Ornithodoros</em> ticks</li><li>is found in all tissues and body fluids</li><li>is highly resistant to inactivation</li><li>strains vary greatly in their virulence. Domestic and feral pigs (<em>Sus scrofa</em>) are the only susceptible mammalian species in Australia outside zoos. European wild boar are also susceptible to ASF and present similar clinical signs and disease dynamics to domestic pigs. In Africa, the warthog, giant forest hog, and bushpigs serve as wild suid reservoirs, and have an inapparent infection.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Distribution</h5><p>ASF:</p><ul><li>is present in most of sub-Saharan Africa</li><li>was first detected outside Africa in 1957 in Portugal, and then in Belgium, Brazil, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, France, Haiti, Italy, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain from the 60s to 90s. The disease has since been eradicated from most of these countries, but is endemic in feral pigs in Sardinia, Italy</li><li>outbreaks have been reported since June 2007 in many countries—most notably in a number of countries in central Europe where the disease had not previously been reported, including Georgia and Russia</li><li>A major outbreak of ASF occurred in China in 2018 and subsequently spread throughout South-East Asia.</li></ul><p>For the latest information on the distribution of ASF, refer to the WAHIS information database website of the <a href="http://www.oie.int">World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE)</a>.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Occurrences in Australia</h5><p>None reported.</p><h4 data-toc="ignore">Epidemiology</h4><h5 data-toc="ignore">Modes of transmission</h5><p>Transmission occurs via:</p><ul><li><strong>contact with infected carcasses</strong>—the carcasses of pigs that die during acute ASF contain more virus than carcasses of chronic carriers of ASF and are therefore more infective to other pigs. Carcasses of chronic carriers have also been linked to the spread of ASF</li><li><strong>direct contact with infected pigs</strong>—the virus is shed in high concentrations in all secretions and excretions that contain blood. Oral and respiratory infection can also occur between pigs in close contact. Moving infected pigs is the most important way to spread disease between piggeries. Feral pigs could become an important reservoir of the virus in Australia</li><li><strong>vectors</strong>—soft ticks belonging to the <em>Ornithodorus</em> spp. are important vectors of ASFV in parts of Africa. ASFV replicates in <em>Ornithodoros</em> ticks and infection can persist over long periods, allowing the virus to be transmitted during blood meals. Other haematophagous insects such as stable flies (<em>Stomoxys calcitrans</em>) feeding on viraemic pigs have been experimentally implicated in the mechanical spread of ASF. Two native species of <em>Ornithodoros</em> ticks are found in Australia—<em>Ornithodoros capensis</em> (penguin tick) and <em>Ornithodoros gurneyi</em> (inornate kangaroo tick). Although <em>O. capensis</em> only parasitises sea birds, <em>O. gurneyi</em> may feed on dogs, cattle, humans, horses, mice, rats, rabbits and kangaroos (its natural host)</li><li><strong>contact with infected faeces and urine</strong></li><li><strong>semen and embryos</strong>—the virus is present in semen and artificial insemination can transmit the virus. The International Embryo Transfer Society has indicated that there is not enough information to reach a conclusion regarding the transmission risk of ASF virus via embryos, but you should assume transmission via embryo transfer until proven otherwise</li><li><strong>ingesting contaminated swill</strong>—ASF virus has the ability to survive for many months in raw, unprocessed, frozen meat as well as meat stored at fridge temperatures and in some processed hams. Ingesting pig meat or products infected with the virus is an important means of spread, and is commonly the way it is introduced into a country. Australia has strict import conditions to address the risk of an ASF incursion and swill feeding is illegal</li><li><strong>fomites</strong>—because of the stability of ASF virus in the environment, indirect contact by means of contaminated pig pens, vehicles and other fomites (such as hypodermic needles) is a very important means of spread of the disease</li><li><strong>airborne spread</strong>—ASF virus is not transmitted in the air from one piggery to another, but it does spread via aerosols within a piggery. Respiratory infection can occur between pigs in close contact.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Disease dynamics</h5><ul><li>following infection via the upper respiratory tract, the virus replicates in the tonsils and lymph nodes draining the head and neck, followed by generalised infection via the blood stream</li><li>incubation period is usually between 4–20 days</li><li>clinical disease may be peracute, acute, subacute or chronic</li><li>in the acute form, has a duration of 1–19 days and case mortality rate of up to 100 per cent</li><li>in the subacute form, persists for longer (3–4 weeks) and the case mortality rate is lower, with deaths more likely in younger pigs</li><li>pigs that survive the acute disease or are infected by mild strains of the virus usually become chronically infected for at least several months. However, such pigs do not readily excrete the virus for more than about 5 or 6 weeks after their initial infection and their role in the spread of the disease after that is unclear.</li><li>it is reported that most recovered pigs are virus carriers for long periods, perhaps for life</li><li>transmission to other pigs through direct contact can occur for up to 1 month after recovery from infection.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Persistence of the agent</h5><p>ASFV:</p><ul><li>can survive at least 30 days in pens and up to 300 days in some pork products</li><li>is highly resistant to inactivation but can be killed by high temperatures and some disinfectants—potassium peroxymonosulfate, hypochlorites, and phenols and related compounds (cresols).</li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Diagnosis and pathology</h4><h5 data-toc="ignore">Clinical signs</h5><p>Signs vary according to whether disease is peracute, acute, subacute or chronic.</p><p>In the peracute form, pigs are usually found dead with no prior clinical signs and if seen before death have marked pyrexia and are moribund.</p><p>In the acute form signs are:</p><ul><li>pyrexia up to 42°C</li><li>hyperaemia or cyanosis of extremities, particularly ears and snout</li><li>loss of appetite or irregular appetite</li><li>inability or unwillingness to stand up</li><li>convulsions</li><li>incoordination or stiff gait</li><li>huddling together or piling one on top of another</li><li>laboured breathing or coughing</li><li>dysentery or diarrhoea (often bloody)</li><li>conjunctivitis</li><li>mucopurulent nasal discharge</li><li>vomiting</li><li>abortion.</li></ul><p>In the subacute form clinical signs are:</p><ul><li>as for the acute form but generally milder and persisting longer (3–4 weeks)</li><li>pyrexia, which may fluctuate irregularly and may exceed 40.5°C</li><li>occasionally, a purple colour over the pig’s body</li><li>bleeding from injection sites</li><li>abortion.</li></ul><p>In the chronic form (generally seen in pigs surviving the subacute form) signs are:</p><ul><li>recurrent transient pyrexia</li><li>ill-thrift, stunting and emaciation</li><li>pneumonia</li><li>arthritis</li><li>cutaneous ulcers</li><li>poor body condition.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Pathology</h5><p>In the peracute form pigs may show no gross lesions. In the acute form, findings include:</p><ul><li>enlarged and haemorrhagic lymph nodes, often resembling blood clots</li><li>the gastrohepatic, renal, mesenteric and submandibular lymph nodes are most often affected</li><li>enlarged spleen (2–3 times its normal size), which may be necrotic, dark, friable or pulpy</li><li>haemorrhages in almost any organ which are most commonly seen on serosal membranes and in kidneys (as subcapsular petechiae), heart, urinary bladder, lung and gall bladder</li><li>septal oedema of lungs, resulting in prominent interlobular septa</li><li>fluid in body cavities.</li></ul><p>In the subacute form findings are more variable than for the acute form and include:</p><ul><li>lymph node and renal haemorrhage</li><li>enlarged but not congested spleen</li><li>lobular consolidation of cranial lung lobes</li><li>haemorrhage of the intestinal lining, lymph nodes and kidney.</li></ul><p>In the chronic form findings include:</p><ul><li>enlarged lymph nodes</li><li>fibrinous pericarditis and pleurisy</li><li>lobular consolidation of lungs, which may progress to lobular necrosis</li><li>small, hard, nodular white masses in lungs</li><li>arthritis</li><li>cutaneous ulcers</li><li>poor body condition</li><li>less commonly seen are haemorrhages in additional organs (petechiae, ecchymoses) and oedema in the lungs and gall bladder.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Differential diagnosis</h5><p>Many other viral and bacterial pathogens of pigs that are often confused with ASF may cause concurrent infections. It is important to take into consideration that isolation of other pathogens does not exclude an underlying ASF virus infection. Consider in the differential diagnosis:</p><ul><li>exotic diseases<ul><li><a href="#aujeszkys_disease">Aujeszky’s disease</a> (respiratory signs)</li><li><a href="classical_swine_fever">classical swine fever</a> (do not attempt clinical differentiation of classical swine fever and ASF)</li><li>porcine deltacoronavirus</li><li>porcine respiratory disease complex</li><li><a href="#porcine_reproductive">porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome</a></li><li>post-weaning multi-systemic wasting syndrome</li><li>swine enteric coronavirus diseases such as those caused by <a href="#porcine_epidemic_diarrhoea">porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus</a></li><li><a href="#transmissible_gastroenteritis">transmissible gastroenteritis</a>.</li></ul></li><li>endemic diseases<ul><li>acute salmonellosis (diarrhoea)</li><li>acute septicaemia due to <em>Streptococcus suis</em> or <em>Haemophilus parasuis</em> (Glässer’s disease)</li><li>infection with other pestiviruses such as border disease virus and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (mucosal disease)</li><li>pasteurellosis (pneumonia)</li><li>porcine circovirus 2-associated diseases such as those seen in porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome</li><li>erysipelas (haemorrhagic skin lesions).</li></ul></li><li>non-infectious causes<ul><li>heavy metal poisoning</li><li>salt poisoning with water deprivation</li><li>thrombocytopaenia purpura (haemorrhages, especially in pigs 2–3 weeks old)</li><li>warfarin poisoning (causing death with haemorrhages, generally sporadic)</li><li>any cause of chronic ill-thrift in pigs.</li></ul></li></ul><h4 data-toc="ignore">Samples required</h4><p>Submit several pigs (at least five if possible) for post-mortem examination, as individual animals may present with great variability in lesions. Record a composite picture of all lesions seen.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample collection</h5><p>Collect samples from affected, especially pyrexic, pigs killed immediately before a post-mortem examination and from pigs that have recently died (including stillborn piglets and aborted foetuses). Collect:</p><ul><li><strong>serum</strong>, 30 samples from suspected chronically infected animals</li><li><strong>EDTA blood</strong> (7–10 ml/animal) from live, clinically affected animals</li><li><strong>fresh tissue</strong> from the spleen, lymph nodes (gastro-hepatic, mesenteric and sub-mandibular) tonsils, lung, kidney and ileum (2 g of each tissue); bone marrow may also be useful from dead wild animals that have been dead for some time, as it is likely to be relatively well preserved</li><li><strong>fixed tissue</strong>, a full range of tissues (including the brain) in neutral-buffered formalin.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Transport of samples</h5><p>For transport:</p><ul><li>chill blood samples and unpreserved tissue samples either at 4 °C, or with frozen gel packs</li><li>DO NOT FREEZE SAMPLES at -20 °C; it reduces the sensitivity when used for virus isolation and molecular diagnostic tests</li><li>send samples with dry ice if the journey is expected to take several days.</li><li>formalin fixed tissue can be sent at room temperature.</li></ul><h5 data-toc="ignore">Sample submission</h5><p>The relevant state or territory laboratory should coordinate sample packaging and consignment for delivery to the Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</p><h5 data-toc="ignore">Diagnostic tests</h5><ul><li>You must confirm the diagnosis by laboratory testing because there is considerable overlap in the clinical and pathological signs seen in ASF with those of a number of other diseases. For ASF diagnosis:</li><li>the initial approach is screening by real-time PCR (qPCR). An antigen ELISA is also available if required and virus isolation will be attempted. Further characterisation and genotyping by sequence analysis can be carried out on primary samples or on isolates</li><li>serological tests are available but are generally more important in defining the nature and extent of any outbreak, and in the proof-of-freedom phase</li><li>histopathology and immunohistochemical staining are also useful diagnostic tests.</li></ul><div class="box-alert icon-exclamation"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Reporting requirements</h4><p>ASF is an OIE-listed disease and Australia has an international obligation to report cases. </p><p>If you suspect ASF, report it immediately. Call the <strong>Emergency Animal Disease Hotline on 1800 675 888</strong>. You will be directed to your state or territory government. </p></div><h4 data-toc="ignore">Biocontainment and personal protective equipment</h4><p>There are no public health implications for ASF, but you should implement biocontainment protocols until advised by government veterinary authorities. This includes isolating suspected cases and using and appropriately disposing of personal protective equipment such as gloves, coveralls and rubber boots (or disposable boots). You need to thoroughly disinfect and decontaminate clothing, vehicle and equipment before leaving the property.</p><div class="columns"><div><figure><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media align-center"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/african_swine_fever_1_ead_guide_1000px.jpg" width="1000" height="667" alt="Figure 3.2.1" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 3.2.1 Multiple sharply demarcated foci of cutaneous haemorrhage and/or necrosis; haemorrhagic lesions may contain dark red (necrotic) centres. Image: PIADC and CFSPH.</figcaption></figure></figure></div><div><figure><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media align-center"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/african_swine_fever_2_ead_guide_1000px.jpg" width="1000" height="667" alt="Figure 3.2.2" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 3.2.2 Haemorrhagic submandibular lymph nodes. Image: Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</figcaption></figure></figure></div></div><div class="columns"><div><figure><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media align-center"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/african_swine_fever_3_ead_guide_1000px.jpg" width="1000" height="667" alt="Figure 3.2.3" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 3.2.3 Petechial haemorrhages in the intestines. Image: Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</figcaption></figure></figure></div><div><figure><figure role="group" class="caption caption-drupal-media align-center"><article class="media media--type-image media--view-mode-default"><div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-media-image field--type-image field--label-hidden field__item"> <img loading="lazy" src="/sites/default/files/images/african_swine_fever_4_ead_guide_1000px.jpg" width="1000" height="667" alt="Figure 3.2.4" /></div> </div> </div> </article><figcaption>Figure 3.2.4 Haemorrhagic fluid in the abdominal cavity. Image: Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness.</figcaption></figure></figure></div></div><div class="box-3"><h4 data-toc="ignore">Further information</h4><p>Penrith, M.L., Vosloo, W. (2009) <a href="https://doi.org/10.4102/jsava.v80i2.172">Review of African swine fever: transmission, spread and control</a>. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 80(2):58-62.</p><p>Penrith, M.L., Vosloo, W., Jori, F., Bastos, A.D. (2013) <a href="https://doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.011">African swine fever virus eradication in Africa</a>. Virus Res. 173(1):228-46.</p><p>Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J.M. (2010). <a href="https://www.oie.int/doc/ged/D11831.PDF">Early detection and contingency plans for African swine fever</a>. 24th Conference of the OIE Regional Commission for Europe, World Organisation for Animal Health, Astana, Kazakhstan.</p></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field__item"> <div id="contributors" class="paragraph paragraph--type--_-col paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="field field--name-field-row-content field--type-entity-reference-revisions field--label-hidden field__item"> <div class="paragraph paragraph--type--text paragraph--view-mode--default"> <div class="layout layout--onecol"> <div class="layout__region layout__region--content"> <div class="clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-body field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><div class="collapsible"><h2 aria-expanded="false"><button title="expand section" type="button">Contributors</button></h2><div><p><strong>John Allen</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Malcolm Anderson</strong><br>Little Kingfisher Group<br>Hackney SA 5069</p><p><strong>Hannah Bender</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Jemma Bergfeld</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>John Bingham</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Stuart Blacksell</strong><br>Mahidol Oxford Tropical Medicine<br>Research Unit<br>Mahidol University<br>Bangkok Thailand 10400</p><p><strong>Tim Bowden</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Andrew Breed</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Amy Burroughs</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Hendrik Camphor</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Patrick Cass</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Bronwyn Clayton</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Axel Colling</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Kerry Daly</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Debbie Eagles</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Iain East</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Daniel Edson</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Mark Ford</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Skye Fruean</strong><br>Northern Australia Quarantine Strategy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Mahala Gunther</strong><br>School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences<br>Charles Sturt University<br>Wagga Wagga NSW 2650</p><p><strong>Kim Halpin</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Sam Hamilton</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Nick Harris</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Jacquelyn Horsington</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Clare Jones</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Ashley Jordan</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Anna Kabaila</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Louise Kench</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Janene Kingston</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Ross Lunt</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Heather McKimm</strong><br>School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences<br>Charles Sturt University<br>Wagga Wagga NSW 2650</p><p><strong>Corissa Miller</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Pat Mitchell</strong><br>Australian Pork Limited<br>Barton ACT 2600</p><p><strong>Andrew Moss</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Kelly Porter</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Louise Sharp</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Nagendra Singanallur</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Joanne Taylor</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Sally Thomson</strong><br>Animal Health Policy<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>Wilna Vosloo</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Jianning Wang</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Natasha Webb</strong><br>Animal Biosecurity<br>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br>Canberra ACT 2601</p><p><strong>John White</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Nicole Whitehouse</strong><br>School of Animal and Veterinary Sciences<br>Charles Sturt University<br>Wagga Wagga NSW 2650</p><p><strong>David Williams</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p><p><strong>Frank Wong</strong><br>Australian Centre for Disease Preparedness<br>CSIRO<br>Geelong VIC 3220</p></div><h2 aria-expanded="false"><button title="expand section" type="button">Acknowledgements</button></h2><div><p>This publication would not be possible without the generous support and assistance of many dedicated individuals. Organisational support was provided by Kelly Maher and editorial support was provided by Rhyll Vallis of the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. A full list of the other contributors is in the <a href="#_Contributors">Contributors</a> section. Funding for this publication was provided by the Australian Government’s<em> Agricultural Competitiveness White Paper</em>, the government’s plan for stronger farmers and a stronger economy.</p><p>Many of the images were sourced courtesy of the <a href="http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/">Center for Food Security and Public Health</a>.</p></div><h2 aria-expanded="false"><button title="expand section" type="button">Appendix A: Example history collection template</button></h2><div><div class="resource-cards"><div class="card-item"><div class="card-item-body"><h2 data-toc="ignore">Download the template</h2><p>Taking a history requires the collection of accurate, quality information. Preparing a standard history collection template can help with gathering evidence.</p><div class="downloads"><p><a href="/sites/default/files/documents/ead-field-guide-example-history-collection-template.docx">Download the Example history collection template</a> - 231 KB</p></div></div></div></div></div><h2 aria-expanded="false"><button title="expand section" type="button">Appendix B: Equipment check list</button></h2><div><h3 data-toc="ignore">Biosecurity gear</h3><ul><li>Sets of clean overalls</li><li>+/- disposable overalls</li><li>Disposable gloves</li><li>Box of surgical masks</li><li>Safety glasses/goggles +/- disposable</li><li>P2 masks/ respirator</li><li>Sharps container</li><li>Detergent</li><li>Water</li><li>General purpose disinfectant</li><li>Boot cleaning container and brush</li><li>Equipment washing container and brushes</li><li>Alcohol-based hand wash</li><li>Plastic groundsheet (and tent pegs)</li><li>Large heavy-duty plastic bags and ties</li></ul><h3 data-toc="ignore">Clinical equipment</h3><ul><li>Clinical thermometers</li><li>Stethoscope</li></ul><h3 data-toc="ignore">Lab sampling gear</h3><ul><li>Plain blood tubes</li><li>EDTA tubes</li><li>Lithium heparin tubes</li><li>Sterile containers ‘yellow tops’</li><li>Large histopathology pots</li><li>Formalin 10%</li><li>Bacterial swabs</li><li>Viral swabs</li><li>Saline bottle</li><li>Slides and holders</li><li>Ziplock bags</li><li>Marker pens</li><li>Lab submission forms</li><li>Eskies and icepacks</li><li>pH test kit</li><li>Urine glucose test strips</li><li>Needles and syringes</li></ul><h3 data-toc="ignore">Post-mortem equipment</h3><ul><li>Knives and sharpener</li><li>Rib cutters (pruning shears)</li><li>Scalpel handles and scalpel blades</li><li>Rat tooth forceps</li><li>Scissors</li><li>Axe and mallet (for brains)</li></ul><h3 data-toc="ignore">Other</h3><ul><li>Digital camera/ phone in ziplock bag</li><li>Checklists, standard operating procedures (SOPs), guidelines folder</li><li>Hendra advice sheet</li><li>This field guide</li></ul></div></div></div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <div class="publication-footer-print clearfix text-formatted field field--name-field-footer field--type-text-long field--label-hidden field__item"><p>© Commonwealth of Australia 2019</p><p><strong>Ownership of intellectual property rights</strong></p><p>Unless otherwise noted, copyright (and any other intellectual property rights) in this publication is owned by the Commonwealth of Australia (referred to as the Commonwealth).</p><p><strong>Creative Commons licence</strong></p><p>All material in this publication is licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Licence</a> except content supplied by third parties, logos and the Commonwealth Coat of Arms.<br />Inquiries about the licence and any use of this document should be emailed to <a href="mailto:copyright@agriculture.gov.au">copyright@agriculture.gov.au</a>.</p><p><img class="publication-creative-commons-logo" src="/themes/custom/custom/outbreak/images/cc-logo.svg" alt="Creative commons logo" /></p><p>This publication is licensed by Commonwealth of Australia under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 international licence.</p><p><strong>Cataloguing data</strong></p><p>This publication (and any material sourced from it) should be attributed as: Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, and CSIRO 2019, <em>Emergency animal diseases: A field guide for Australian veterinarians</em>, Canberra, August. CC BY 4.0.<br />ISBN 978-1-76003-228-9</p><p>This publication is available at  <a href="https://www.outbreak.gov.au/for-vets-and-scientists/emergency-animal-diseases-guide">https://www.outbreak.gov.au/for-vets-and-scientists/emergency-animal-diseases-guide</a>.</p><p>Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries<br />GPO Box 858 Canberra ACT 2601<br />Telephone 1800 900 090<br />Web <a href="http://agriculture.gov.au/">agriculture.gov.au</a></p><p>The Australian Government acting through the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has exercised due care and skill in preparing and compiling the information and data in this publication. Notwithstanding, the Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability, including liability for negligence and for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying on any of the information or data in this publication to the maximum extent permitted by law.</p></div> </div> </div> Tue, 13 Aug 2019 04:14:00 +0000 bec.billingham 117 at https://www.outbreak.gov.au